Monday, August 2, 2010
CATHOLIC WORLD NEWS: MON. AUG. 2, 2010
CATHOLIC WORLD NEWS: MON. AUG. 2, 2010: HEADLINES-
VATICAN: POPE: APPOINTS AMERICAN HEAD CONGREGATION CONSECRATED LIFE-
ASIA: INDIA: ARCHBISHOP HOSTS INTER-FAITH PEACE MEETING-
AMERICA: USA: ILLINOIS BASEBALL TEAM CELEBRATES MASS BEFORE GAME-
AUSTRALIA: TORNADO DAMAGES HISTORIC MARY MACKILLOP CENTRE-
EUROPE: RUSSIA: 500 TOWNS SUFFERING FROM WORST FIRES - 34 DEAD-
AFRICA: UGANDA: BOY ABDUCTED FOR ARMY THEN ENTERS PRIESTHOOD-
POPE: APPOINTS AMERICAN HEAD OF CONGREGATION FOR CONSECRATED LIFE
INDIA: ARCHBISHOP HOSTS INTER-FAITH PEACE MEETING
UCAN report: An archbishop in southern India has brought together Hindu, Muslim and Christian leaders in a meeting to promote peace in Kerala state.
“It’s our duty to maintain harmony and mutual respect. That’s why we organized this meeting,” said Major Archbishop Baselios Mar Cleemis, head of the Kerala-based Syro-Malankara Church.
A statement issued after the meeting, which was held in the state capital Thiruvananthapuram on July 31, appealed to leaders of all religions to fight the “divisive forces” that aim to destabilize society.
“No religion preaches communal hatred, but the attack on the professor has led to a communal polarization,” the statement said, adding that “no community should be isolated on the basis of stray incidents.”
The prelate said he regretted the recent “unfortunate happening,” which has proven the existence of “evil forces who scheme to divide and spread mutual hatred in the state.”
“This initiative for peace is a welcome sign,” said Imam Maulavi Jamaluddin, a local Muslim leader. “We have come together to say we deplore such violent criminal activities, which are against Islamic spirituality.”
When asked to comment on media reports that Christians in the area were planning to boycott Muslim businesses, he said “it’s a dangerous trend.”
USA: ILLINOIS BASEBALL TEAM CELEBRATES MASS BEFORE GAME
Fr. Paul Fasano celebrates Mass in the Kane County Cougars stadium.
The Cougars of the Class A Midwest League, a team affiliated with the Oakland Athletics, organized the Mass at their baseball field in the Chicago suburb of Geneva.
The liturgy began at 5:30 p.m. and Mass attendees were required to have a ticket for the game. The July 16 event, which was billed as “Mass on the Grass,” drew participants from 14 area churches. Cougars assistant general manager Jeff Ney said about 400 people attended the service. He did not think any players attended because they were preparing for the game. He added that the players have baseball chapel service on Sundays.
While the team was unsure whether it would hold any similar services this year, it planned to have religious events next year with other faiths and denominations as well.
Asked if there were any complaints about the event, general manager Jeff Sedivy told USA Today, “Not at all. Not one.” He added that the Catholic Mass was the first religious event the team had hosted simply because Cougars media relations coordinator Shawn Touney, a Catholic, had the idea.
In a Friday interview, Ney told CNA that the event resulted from conversations Touney had with his friend Fr. Paul Fasano, a parochial vicar at Holy Cross Parish in Batavia, Ill.
Talking about a possible outing for one of their youth ministries, the two wondered whether they could have a church service as part of the event.
“It just grew from there,” Ney reported, confirming that Fr. Fasano was the celebrant at the Mass.
Parishes were informed of the event by telephone, Ney added. Though youth ministries were the initial target of the promotion, senior citizens and others were well represented at the event.
Feedback about the Mass was “generally really good,” with many looking forward to attending a similar event next season. The weather provided “a beautiful afternoon with clear skies,” though the temperature was hot and the priest had to paperclip the sacramentary used during Mass because of a strong breeze.
According to an e-mail from Ney, Fr. Fasano threw the ceremonial First Pitch before the start of the game, in which the Cougars defeated the South Bend Silver Hawks by a score of 8-0.
TORNADO DAMAGES HISTORIC MARY MACKILLOP CENTRE
Premier Mike Rann said a 50-metre-wide tornado had left a 3km path of destruction through the tiny town.
"About half the shops have been damaged," he told AAP. "The bowling club has been totally flattened - like a bomb has gone off."
Mr Rann said $250,000 would be transferred to the council tomorrow "to get the ball rolling" on repairs.
"I've also told the Catholic Church that we will be very happy to assist the Catholic Church in repairs to the Mary MacKillop Centre.
"Penola has put such a massive amount of work into this so we are very eager to help them recover and rebuild as quickly as possible so Penola can play its very important central role in the Mary MacKillop celebrations."
Adelaide Archbishop Philip Wilson said he was "saddened" to hear of the damage to the town. "Penola is in my prayers today," he said in a statement.
It was in Penola in 1866 that Mary MacKillop and priest Julian Woods founded the Sisters of St Joseph and set up a school to provide a free Catholic education for the children of Penola.
Australia's Ambassador to the Holy See Tim Fischer said he was "very confident" that the town of Penola has plenty of spirit and will bounce back, said an AAP report in the Sydney Morning Herald.
Mr Fischer said he was saddened to learn of the damage that was caused by the tornado to the town but he relieved that there were no casualties.
"I am happy to say that I will be proceeding to Penola as planned on Tuesday morning," he said, adding that he was bringing a special flag from the Vatican as a gesture of appreciation.
RUSSIA: 500 TOWNS SUFFERING FROM WORST FIRES - 34 DEAD
CNN report -- Russian authorities have imposed a state of emergency around about 500 towns and villages because of wildfires burning across the west of the country, officials said Monday.
Nearly 700 fires are burning, covering about 115,000 hectares, she said. That is nearly 450 square miles. A hectare is about the size of a baseball field or an international rugby pitch.
Some 34 people have been confirmed dead, Andrianova said. That includes two firefighters, the Russian news agency Itar-Tass reported over the weekend, citing the emergencies ministry.
Firefighters moved in to protect 86,000 people from the fires, she said.
About 5,000 of those people fled their homes. The rest are from 265 villages and towns that were protected from the blazes by firefighters, but did not have to evacuate, she said.
Heat and drought have made Russia especially susceptible to wildfires, she said. High temperatures are expected to continue through the middle of August, with no rain forecast.
Authorities said Sunday that firefighters were gaining control over the blazes.
"Despite complicated weather conditions, the situation is under control thanks to preventive measures and efforts taken by the Russian Emergencies Ministry," a spokesman for the ministry told the Itar-Tass news agency.
"The most difficult situation with wildfires remains in the Nizhny Novgorod, Vladimir and Voronezh regions and the Republic of Mordovia, where fires threaten several populated settlements," the ministry's information department said.
A hot, dry summer has been a key factor in the fires, drying out large parts of land and igniting the peat bogs that lie all over central Russia.
Moscow hit a temperature of 39 Celsius (102 Fahrenheit) on Thursday, the highest temperature since records began in 1879.
In the village of Maslovka, near Voronezh, almost every house in the village of 500 people had burned to the ground.
All the residents of Maslovka had been evacuated to nearby hotels.
A resident of Maslovka named Nina said she had returned to the village after the fire to sift through the rubble of the house where she was born.
For 50 years, she said, she lived under the same roof. A few days ago, the wildfires were swept by high winds to the village and quickly engulfed her house. Now there is nothing left.
Even the clothes she was wearing were not hers -- they had been given to her by a neighbor.As Nina told her story, an old lady walked from behind a broken wall, wailing. Nina said the woman was her mother, devastated that she had lost the home where she raised her family.
Russia's government has vowed to compensate the more than 1,870 families whose houses have been burned down. Amid complaints, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev has ordered regional governors to speed up the compensation process.
The Kremlin has called the wildfires a natural disaster of the kind that appear every 30 or 40 years.
Critics, meanwhile, accuse local authorities of mismanaging the response.
Russia says it has deployed nearly a quarter of a million people to fight the fires. But around Voronezh, many of the firefighters were just volunteers with buckets.
UGANDA: TESTIMONY- BOY ABDUCTED FOR ARMY THEN ENTERS PRIESTHOOD
Agenzia Fides)- Stefano was 16 when he was abducted by the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) in an attack the minor seminary in the diocese of Gulu in northern Uganda on 11 May, 2003 (see Fides 12/5/2003 and 19/5/2003). Stefano was kidnapped with 40 other seminarians.
According to a report drafted by Eva-Maria Kolmann of Aid to the Church in Need (ACN) , the rebel group wanted the seminarians to fight with the other soldiers in its ranks. Most of the seminarians were eventually killed and 12 are still missing.
Stefano told his story to representatives of Aid to the Church in Need ACN based in Königstein, Germany, who were recently in Uganda.
“For two months killing, raping and torture was part of daily life. The rebels wanted to teach the boys how to kill, especially because they were seminarians. Stefano saw some of his friends beaten and kicked to death in front of him; others he saw slaughtered with machetes when they stopped walking because they could go no further on the long marches. However in this misfortune Stefano was fortunate, he managed to escape before being forced to kill anyone ” says the ACN report sent to Fides.
The kidnapped seminarian describes the night of the attack: “the rebels, about twenty of them, appeared about twenty minutes after midnight. They surrounded the building and them some came straight to the dormitory for 16 year old students. They could not open the door and so one of them climbed in the window to open the door from the inside. One of the seminarians had turned out the lights to stop the rebels, but they carried torches ”.
The two soldiers sent by the government to protect the seminary had fled as soon as the rebels appeared. “we had been left without protection” Stefano recalls. Besides the seminarians, on a piece of land adjacent to the seminary about two thousand people, mainly women and children were sheltering, hoping in vain to escape LRA night attacks. One of the rebels killed a little boy of about 7 years old in front of the mother, Stefano remembers.
The rebels made the seminarians march for hours. “I saw things I never imagined I would see. A man cannot escape all this, but God works miracles. Prayer was my only hope. During the long marches I prayed the Rosary using my fingers because I had no beads ” Stefano recalls.
Two months after the abduction, government troops attacked the rebels. In the confusion and fighting Stefano managed to escape and after walking for many days not knowing where he was going, he was found by an army patrol.
His family had thought he was dead. “They had asked the priest to say a Mass for me”, Stefano remembers. Stefano's parents and brothers did not want him to return to the seminary, but he knew that the seminary was his place. Today Stefano is a priest.
Since 1988 LRA rebels have abducted more than 30,000 children and adolescents of both sexes. They use the boys as soldiers and the girls as sex slaves. The children are raped, drugged, forced to kill and torture, the slightest resistance is brutally punished; many are killed in cold blood.
Some who manage to escape are too frightened to return to the family, they are so ashamed of the atrocities they were made to commit. The rebels often force the boys to kill people in their own villages, even parents or brothers and sisters, hoping in this way to make it impossible for them to return.
The local Catholic Church give assistance to these children in various ways. For example Lira Diocesan Radio station has a special programme on which family members send loving messages to kidnapped children convincing them to come home. Messages are also sent by abducted children who have returned and want to tell their companions not to be afraid, and to come home. The rebels are against these initiatives for peace and they set fire to the radio station. But the aerial did not burn and, with the help of Aid to the Church in Need, Radio Wa (“our radio”) continues to broadcast its programmes helping to restore peace and reconciliation in Uganda. http://www.fides.org/aree/news/newsdet.php?idnews=27191&lan=eng
Our Lady of the Angels of Portiuncula
A town and parish situated about three-quarters of a mile from Assisi. The town, numbering about 2000 inhabitants and officially known as Santa Maria degli Angeli, has grown up around the church (basilica) of Our Lady of the Angels and the adjoining Franciscan monastery. It was here that on 24 Feb., 1208, St. Francis of Assisi recognized his vocation; here was for the most part his permanent abode, after the Benedictines (of the Cluny Congregation from about 1200) had presented him (about 1211) with the little chapel Portiuncula, i.e. a little portion (of land); here also he died on Saturday, 3 October, 1226. According to a legend, the existence of which can be traced back with certainty only to 1645, the little chapel of Portiuncula was erected under Pope Liberius (352-66) by hermits from the Valley of Josaphat, who had brought thither relics from the grave of the Blessed Virgin. The same legend relates that the chapel passed into the possession of St. Benedict in 516. It was known as Our Lady of the Valley of Josaphat or of the Angels -- the latter title referring, according to some, to Our Lady's ascent into heaven accompanied by angels (Assumption B.M.V.); a better founded opinion attributes the name to the singing of angels which had been frequently heard there. However this may be, here or in this neighbourhood was the cradle of the Franciscan Order, and on his death-bed St. Francis recommended the chapel to the faithful protection and care of his brethren. Concerning the form and plan of the first monastery built near the chapel we have no information, nor is the exact form of the loggia or platforms built round the chapel itself, or of the choir for the brothers built behind it, known. Shortly after 1290, the chapel, which measured only about twenty-two feet by thirteen and a half, became entirely inadequate to accommodate the throngs of pilgrims. The altar piece, an Annunciation, was painted by the priest, Hilarius of Viterbo, in 1393. The monastery was at most the residence, only for a short time, of the ministers-general of the order after St. Francis. In 1415 it first became associated with the Regular Observance, in the care of which it remains to the present day. The buildings, which had been gradually added to, around the shrine were taken down by order of Pius V (1566-72), except the cell in which St. Francis had died, and were replaced by a large basilica in contemporary style. The new edifice was erected over the cell just mentioned and over the Portiuncula chapel, which is situated immediately under the cupola. The basilica, which has three naves and a circle of chapels extending along the entire length of the aisles, was completed (1569-78) according to the plans of Jacob Barozzi, named Vignola (1507-73), assisted by Alessi Galeazzo (1512-72). The Doric order was chosen. The basilica forms a Latin cross 416 feet long by 210 feet wide; above the middle of the transept rises the magnificent cupola, flanked by a single side-tower, the second never having been finished. In the night of 15 March, 1832, the arch of the three naves and of the choir fell in, in consequence of an earthquake, but the cupola escaped with a big crack. Gregory XVI had all restored (1836-40), and on 8 Sept., 1840, the basilica was reconsecrated by Cardinal Lambruschini. By Brief of 11 April, 1909, Pius X raised it to a "patriarchal basilica and papal chapel". The high altar was therefore immediately rebuilt at the expense of the Franciscan province of the Holy Cross (also known as the Saxon province), and a papal throne added. The new altar was solemnly consecrated by Cardinal De Lai on 7 Dec., 1910. Under the bay of the choir, resting against the columns of the cupola, is still preserved the cell in which St. Francis died, while, a little behind the sacristy, is the spot where the saint, during a temptation, is said to have rolled in a briar-bush, which was then changed into thornless roses. During this same night the saint received the Portiuncula Indulgence. The representation of the reception of this Indulgence on the façade of the Portiuncula chapel, the work of Fr. Overbeck (1829), enjoys great celebrity.
The Portiuncula Indulgence could at first be gained only in the Portiuncula chapel between the afternoon of 1 Aug. and sunset on 2 Aug. On 5 Aug., 1480 (or 1481), Sixtus IV extended it to all churches of the first and second orders of St. Francis for Franciscans; on 4 July, 1622, this privilege was further extended by Gregory XV to all the faithful, who, after confession and the reception of Holy Communion, visited such churches on the appointed day. On 12 Oct., 1622, Gregory granted the same privilege to all the churches of the Capuchins; Urban VIII granted it for all churches of the regular Third Order on 13 Jan., 1643, and Clement X for all churches of the Conventuals on 3 Oct., 1670. Later popes extended the privilege to all churches pertaining in any way to the Franciscan Order, even to churches in which the Third Order held its meetings (even parish churches, etc.), provided that there was no Franciscan church in the district, and that such a church was distant over an Italian mile (1000 paces, about 1640 yards). Some districts and countries have been granted special privileges. On 9 July, 1910, Pius X (only, however, for that year) granted the privilege that bishops could appoint any public churches whatsoever for the gaining of the Portiuncula Indulgence, whether on 2 Aug. or the Sunday following (Acta Apostolicae Sedis, II, 1910, 443 sq.; Acta Ord. Frat. Min., XXIX, 1910, 226). This privilege has been renewed for an indefinite time by a decree of the S. Cong. of Indul., 26 March, 1911 (Acta Apostolicae Sedis, III, 1911, 233-4). The Indulgence is toties-quoties, that is, it may be gained as often as one wishes (i.e. visits the church); it is also applicable to the souls in purgatory.
While the declarations of the popes have rendered the Portiuncula Indulgence certain and indisputable from the juridico-canonistic standpoint, its historical authenticity (sc. origin from St. Francis) is still a subject of dispute. The controversy arises from the fact that none of the old legends of St. Francis mentions the Indulgence, and no contemporary document or mention of it has down to us. The oldest document dealing with the Indulgence is a notary's deed of 31 October, 1277, in which Blessed Benedict of Arezzo, whom St. Francis himself received into the order, testifies that he had been informed by Brother Masseo, a companion of St. Francis, of the granting of the Indulgence by Honorius III at Perugia. Then follow other testimonies, for example, those of Jacob Cappoli concerning Brother Leo, of Fr. Oddo of Aquasparta, Peter Zalfani, Peter John Olivi (d. 1298, who wrote a scholastic tract in defence of this indulgence about 1279), Blessed John of Laverna (Fermo; d. 1322), Ubertinus of Casale (d. after 1335), Blessed Francis of Fabriano (d. 1322), whose testimony goes back to the year 1268, etc. In addition to these rather curt and concise testimonies there are others which relate all details in connection with the granting of the Indulgence, and were reproduced in numberless books: e.g. the testimony of Michael Bernardi, the letters of Bishop Theobald of Assisi (1296-1329) and of his successor Conrad Andreae (1329-37). All the testimonies were collected by Fr. Francesco Bartholi della Rossa in a special work, "Tractatus de Indulgentia S. Mariae de Portiuncula" (ed. Sabatier, Paris, 1900). In his edition of this work, Sabatier defends the Indulgence, although in his world-famous "Vie de S. François" (Paris, 1894), he had denied its historicity (412 sqq.); he explains the silence of St. Francis and his companions and biographers as due to reasons of discretion etc. Others seek to accord more weight to the later testimonies by accentuating their connection with the first generation of the order; others again find allusions to the Indulgence in the old legends of St. Francis. On the other hand, the opponents regard the gap between 1216 and 1277 as unbridgable, and hold that the grounds brought forward by the defenders to explain this silence had vanished long before the latter date. No new documents have been found recently in favour of the authenticity of the Indulgence.
[Note: The norms and grants of indulgences were completely reformed by Pope Paul VI after the Second Vatican Council in his Apostolic Constitution "Indulgentiarum Doctrina" (1967), and the Portiuncula Indulgence was again confirmed at that time. According to the Enchiridion Indulgentiarum, the Catholic faithful may gain a plenary indulgence on 2 August (the Portiuncula) or on such other day as designated by the local ordinary for the advantage of the faithful, under the usual conditions (sacramental Confession, Holy Communion, and prayer for the intentions of the Supreme Pontiff), by devoutly visiting the parish church, and there reciting at least the Lord's Prayer and the Creed. The Indulgence applies to the cathedral church of the diocese, and to the co-cathedral church (if there is one), even if they are not parochial, and also to quasi-parochial churches. To gain this, as any plenary indulgence, the faithful must be free from any attachment to sin, even venial sin. Where this entire detachment is wanting, the indulgence is partial.]
St. Eusebius Vercelli
Information: Feast Day: August 2
Born: 283, Sardinia
Died: August 1, 371, Vercelli, Piemonte
Patron of: Vercelli
Bishop of Vercelli, b. in Sardinia c. 283; d. at Vercelli, Piedmont, 1 August, 371. He was made lector in Rome, where he lived some time, probably as a member or head of a religious community (Spreitzenhofer, Die Entwickelung des alten Mönchtums in Italien, Vienna, 1894, 14 sq.), Later he came to Vercelle, the present Vercelli, and in 340 was unanimously elected bishop of that city by the clergy and the people. He received episcopal consecration at the hands of Pope Julius I on 15 December, of the same year. According to the testimony of St. Ambrose (Ep. lxiii, Ad Vercellenses) he was the first bishop of the West who united monastic with clerical life. He led with the clergy of his city a common life modelled upon that of the Eastern cenobites (St. Ambrose, Ep. lxxxi and Serm. lxxxix). For this reason the Canons Regular of St. Augustine honour him along with St. Augustine as their founder (Proprium Canon. Reg., 16 December).
In 364 Pope Liberius sent Eusebius and Bishop Lucifer to Cagliari to the Emperor Constantius, who was then at Arles in Gaul, for the purpose of inducing the emperor to convoke a council which should put an end to the dissentions between the Arians and the orthodox. The synod was held in Milan in 355. At first Eusebius refused to attend it because he foresaw that the Arian bishops, who were supported by the emperor, would not accept the decrees of the Nicene council and would insist upon the condemnation of St. Athanasius. Being pressed by the emperor and the bishops to appear at the synod, he came to Milan, but was not admitted to the synod until the document condemning St. Athanasius had been drawn up and was awaiting the signature of the bishops. Eusebius vehemently protested against the unjust condemnation of St. Athanasius and, despite the threats of the emperor, refused to attach his signature to the document. As a result he was sent into exile, first to Scythopolis in Syria, where the Arian bishop Patrophilus, whom Eusebius calls his jailer, (Baronius, Annal., ad ann. 356, n. 97), treated him very cruelly; then to Cappodocia, and lastly to Thebaid. On the accession of the Emperor Julian, the exiled bishops were allowed to return to their sees, in 362. Eusebius, however, and his brother-exile Lucifer did not at once return to Italy. Acting either by force of their former legatine faculties or, as is more probable, having received new legatine faculties from Pope Liberius, they remained in the Orient for some time, helping to restore peace in the Church. Eusebius went to Alexandria to consult with St. Athanasius about convoking the synod which in 362 was held there under their joint presidency. Besides declaring the Divinity of the Holy Ghost and the orthodox doctrine concerning the Incarnation, the synod agreed to deal mildly with the repentant apostate bishops, but to impose severe penalties upon the leaders of several of Arianizing factions. At its close Eusebius went to Antioch to reconcile the Eustathians and the Meletians. The Eustathians were adherents of the bishop St. Eustatius, who was deposed and exiled by the Arians in 331. Since Meletius' election in 361 was brought about chiefly by the Arians, the Eustathians would not recognize him, although he solemnly proclamed his orthodox faith from the ambo after his episcopal consecration. The Alexandrian synod had desired that Eusebius should reconcile the Eustathians with Bishop Meletius, by purging his election of whatever might have been irregular in it, but Eusebius, upon arriving at Antioch found that his brother-legate Lucifer had consecrated Paulinus, the leader of the Eustathians, as Bishop of Antioch, and thus unwittingly had frustrated the pacific design. Unable to reconcile the factions at Antioch, he visited other Churches of the Orient in the interest of the orthodox faith, and finally passed through Illyricum into Italy. Having arrived at Vercelli in 363, he assisted the zealous St. Hilary of Poitiers in the suppression of Arianism in the Western Church, and was one of the chief opponents of the Arian Bishop Auxientius of Milan. The church honours him as a martyr and celebrates his feast as a semi-double on 16 December. In the "Journal of Theological Studies" (1900), I, 302-99, E.A. Burn attributes to Eusebius the "Quicumque".
Three short letters of Eusebius are printed in Migne, P.L., XII, 947-54 and X, 713-14. St. Jerome (De vir. ill., c. lvi, and Ep. li, n. 2) ascribes to him a Latin translation of a commentary on the Psalms, written originally in Greek by Eusebius of Cæsarea; but this work has been lost. There is preserved in the cathedral at Vercelli the "Codex Vercellensis", the earliest manuscript of the old Latin Gospels (codex a), which is generally believed to have been written by Eusebius. It was published by Irico (Milan 1748) and Bianchini (Rome, 1749), and is reprinted in Migne, P.L. XII, 9-948; a new edition was brought out by Belsheim (Christiania, 1894). Krüger (Lucifer, Bischof von Calaris", Leipzig, 1886, 118-30) ascribes to Eusebius a baptismal oration by Caspari (Quellen sur Gesch, Des Taufsymbols, Christiania, 1869, II, 132-40). The confession of faith "Des. Trinitate confessio", P.L., XII, 959-968, sometimes ascribed to Eusebius is spurious.
.Luke 1: 26 - 33
26 In the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city of Galilee named Nazareth,
27 to a virgin betrothed to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary.
28 And he came to her and said, "Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with you!"
29 But she was greatly troubled at the saying, and considered in her mind what sort of greeting this might be.
30 And the angel said to her, "Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God.
31 And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus.
32 He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David,
33 and he will reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there will be no end."