DONATE TO JCE NEWS

Monday, July 15, 2013

CATHOLIC NEWS WORLD : MON. JULY 15, 2013 - BREAKING NEWS SHARE

(Vatican Radio Image share)HAPPY BIRTHDAY JESUSCARITASEST NEWS - DONATE TODAY

POPE FRANCIS "WE MUST ALWAYS BE A SIGN OF HOPE AND PEACE..." AND LATEST FROM VATICAN



Dear Family in Jesus, 
PLEASE DONATE TODAY THANK-YOU. GOD BLESS.  Jesus Caritas Est, Catholic Daily News, celebrates its 4th anniversary. 
http://jesuscaritasest.org was established in 2009. This DAILY service began in response to the universal call for charity in Pope Benedict XVI´s encyclical "Deus Caritas Est." Now it is reaching out globally. We are read in over 200 countries worldwide. Its motto is "Jesus Caritas Est"; Jesus is love.
WE NEED YOUR HELP DONATE NOW VIA PAYPAL
 
JCE News provides a DAILY digest of many stories impacting your world today.

Through the news service, many are provided with information on the Catholic Christian World. We provide:
*DAILY News from every continent
*BREAKING NEWS COVERAGE
*Vatican coverage (Vatican Information Service, Radio Vatican, Vatican.va)
*Daily Gospel readings - DAILY MASS VIDEO
*Daily Saint stories
*Archives and Search engine at Blog
If you would like to help this apostolate contribute to the glorification of God through this service, please consider supporting the JCE. We keep you in our prayers please remember us.
Thank-you dear readers for your support and God bless,
We are available AT-
LIKE US ON FACEBOOKhttp://www.facebook.com/jesuscaritasestnews
http://jesuscaritasest.org
http://jesuscaritasest.blogspot.com
HEADLINE NEWS http://jceworld.blogspot.com
PINTEREST http://pinterest.com/jesuscaritasest/
TWITTER http://twitter.com/jesuscaritasest
GOOGLE PLUS PAGE : https://plus.google.com/u/0/115987982108863895726#115987982108863895726/posts
LINKEDIN GROUP: http://www.linkedin.com/groups/JESUSCARITASESTORG-3160851?trk=myg_ugrp_ovr
IF YOU HAVE A NEWS STORY TO PUBLISH PLEASE CONTACT US AT
e-mail : 
jesuscaritasest@gmail.com
DONATE NOW VIA PAYPAL- CLICK THE PAYPAL BUTTON ON OUR WEBSITE OR BLOGS.

WE NEED YOUR HELP DONATE NOW VIA PAYPAL
 

POPE FRANCIS "WE MUST ALWAYS BE A SIGN OF HOPE AND PEACE..." AND LATEST FROM VATICAN

THE POPE GREETS EMPLOYEES OF THE PONTIFICAL VILLAS AT CASTEL GANDOLFO
Vatican City, 14 July 2013 (VIS) - “I have come to spend a day meeting with the citizens of Castel Gandolfo, with the pilgrims and all the visitors who justly love this place, who are enchanted by its beauty”, said Pope Francis to the employees of the Pontifical Villas of the small town where the popes traditionally spend the summer. The Holy Father expressed his gratitude to the employees and their families for the work they carry out in the service of the Holy See.
The meeting took place on the terrace of the apostolic palace at Castel Gandolfo and was attended by Bishop Marcello Semeraro of Albano, the diocese to which Castel Gandolfo belongs, Saverio Petrillo, director of the Pontifical Villas, and the mayor of Castel Gandolfo, Milvia Monachesi. The presence of the bishop enabled the Pope to greet with affection the parish community of Castel Gandolfo and the religious communities in the area, and he encouraged them to “renew with joy and enthusiasm the commitment to proclaiming and witnessing the Gospel”. In his address to the mayor he invited the citizens of Castel Gandolfo “to be a sign of hope and peace, always attentive to those people and families most in difficulty”. He added, “This is important! We must always be a sign of hope and peace at this time. Open the doors to hope, so that hope might continue to work towards peace, for ever”.
Pope Francis then mentioned John Paul II and Benedict XVI, who used to spend part of the summer there. “Many of you had the opportunity to meet and welcome them, and conserve dear memories of them. May their witness always encourage you in your daily fidelity to Christ and in your continual efforts to lead a life consonant with the demands of the Gospel and the teachings of the Church”.
Finally, he entrusted those present to the Virgin Mary, who two days later would be commemorated as the Virgin of Mount Carmel, beseeching her to watch over them and their families. “I beg you all to pray for me too, and for my service”, he added; “I need your prayers”.
POPE FRANCIS: IMITATE GOD'S MERCY
Vatican City, 14 July 2013 (VIS) – At midday the Pope presided at his first Sunday Angelus in Castel Gandolfo, praying with the faithful gathered in Piazza della Liberta. He commented on the parable of the good Samaritan from the gospel of St. Luke, emphasizing that “God always wants mercy for everyone and not condemnation. He wants the mercy of the heart because he is merciful and understands well our suffering, our difficulties and even our sins. He gives this merciful heart to all of us! The Samaritan does precisely this: he simply imitates the mercy of God, mercy towards those in need”.
The Pope mentioned St. Camillus de Lellis, founder of the hospital order dedicated to the sick, patron of the sick and of healthcare workers, describing him as “a man who lived fully this Gospel of the good Samaritan”. He greeted “all the sons and spiritual daughters of St. Camillus, who live his charism of charity and daily contact with the sick. You are like good Samaritans! I pray that doctors, the infirm and those who work in hospitals and care centres will be animated by the same spirit”.
“You are all young at heart!” With these words, the Holy Father asked for the intercession of the Virgin for all the pilgrims who will meet in Brazil to celebrate World Youth Day. “Let us pray ... that Our Lady of Aparecida, patroness of Brazil, guide the steps of the participants and open their hearts to welcome the message Christ will give them”.
POPE FRANCIS PRAYS FOR THE VICTIMS OF THE VOLHYNIA MASSACRE
Vatican City, 14 July 2013 (VIS) – Following Sunday's Angelus, the Pope commemorated the massacres of Volhynia in June 1943, a tragic episode during the Second World War in which tens of thousands of people lost their lives. He said, “I join in prayer with the prelates and faithful of the Church in Ukraine, gathered in the cathedral of Lutsk for the Holy Mass of the souls of the deceased on the seventieth anniversary of the massacres at Volhynia. Those actions, provoked by nationalist ideology in the tragic context of the Second World War, claimed tens of thousands of victims and damaged the fraternity between the two peoples, the Polish and the Ukrainian. I entrust to the mercy of God the souls of the victims and, for their people, I ask the grace of profound reconciliation and of a peaceful future in hope and in sincere collaboration in building together the Kingdom of God”.
He went on to thank the pastors and faithful participating in the pilgrimage of the family of Radio Maria to Jasna Gora, Czestochowa, Poland, and greeted the faithful of the Diocese of Albano, invoking the protection of their patron St. Bonaventure, whose feast is celebrated on 15 July. “May tomorrow's feast be beautiful, and many best wishes! I'd like to send you a cake... but I don't think they can make one big enough!” he joked.
The Holy Father finally addressed the young deaf people who were present in Rome for an international meeting, the religious sisters of St. Elizabeth and the Apostles of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, as well as the Daughters of Divine Charity, holding their general chapter, and the superiors of the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians.
SECAM BISHOPS CALL UPON AFRICAN LEADERS TO SERVE THE INTERESTS OF THE PEOPLE
Vatican City, 13 July 2013 (VIS) – The African bishops have concluded the 26th plenary meeting of the Symposium of Episcopal Conferences of Africa and Madagascar (SECAM), calling upon the political leaders of the continent to work not in their own interests, but for the benefit of all the African population. The theme of the plenary was “The Church, the family of God in Africa at the service of reconciliation, justice and peace”, and its aim was to adopt new pastoral orientations for reconciliation through the Gospel.
The prelates, who met in Kinshasa, Congo, from 9 to 14 July, invited Africans to commit themselves urgently to the struggle for a just social order and to enable the rights proper to human dignity to be enjoyed by all, in all areas of life. They also called for an end to the war in the Democratic Republic of Congo, that has been destroying the country for years and which has caused millions of deaths and serious human rights violations, in addition to the rape of thousands of women and girls. “We cannot remain silent before a drama which appears to have been forgotten”, said the bishops. “We launch an urgent appeal to the United Nations, the European Union, the African Union and the governments of other countries in any way involved to take resolute action to bring an end to this war which has already lasted too long”.
The bishops also focused on the situations in the Central African Republic, the countries of the Horn of Africa, Mali, Nigeria, South Sudan, Madagascar, Rwanda, Uganda, Tunisia and Egypt.
OTHER PONTIFICAL ACTS
Vatican City, 14 July 2013 (VIS) – Today, the Holy Father appointed Msgr. Alfredo Enrique Torres Rondon, of the clergy of Merida, as auxiliary bishop of Merida (area 8,105, population 685,000, Catholics 616,000, priests 129, permanent deacons 18, religious 289), Venezuela. The bishop-elect was born in Maracaibo in 1950 and was ordained a priest in 1976. He holds a licentiate in moral theology from the Alphonsianium Academy, Rome, and has served in a number of pastoral roles, including rector of the minor seminary “San Buenaventura” in Merida; priest in the parishes of Macuchachi, San Rafael of Mucuchies, Nuestra Senora del Carmen in Santa Cruz de Mora, Nuestra Senora del Carmen in Montalban de Ejidio, San Juan Batista in Milla, San Miguel Arcangel de El Llano in Merida; director of family pastoral care for the archdiocese, and vicar general of the archdiocese. He has also been a member of the Venezuela Plenary Council and assessor for the Venezuelan Eucharistic Congress. He succeeds Bishop Luis Alfonso Marquez Molina, whose resignation from the pastoral care of the same archdiocese the Holy Father accepted, upon having reached the age limit.
On Saturday, 13 July, the Holy Father:
- appointed Bishop Giuseppe Fiorini Morosini, O.M., as metropolian archbishop of Reggio Calabria-Bova (area 1,004, population 285,000, Catholics 281,000, priests 185, permanent deacons 43, religious 397), Italy. Bishop Fiorini Morosini, previously bishop of Locri-Gerace, Italy, was born in Paola, Italy in 1945, was ordained to the priesthood in 1969, and received episcopal ordination in 2008. He succeeds Archbishop Vittorio Luigi Mondello, whose resignation from the pastoral care of the same archdiocese the Holy Father accepted, upon having reached the age limit.
- appointed Msgr. Robert Llanos as auxiliary bishop of Port of Spain (area , population , Catholics , priests , permanent deacons , religious ), Trinidad and Tobago. The bishop-elect was born in Trinidad in 1958 and was ordained a priest in 1991. Previously a bank employee, he completed his studies in philosophy and theology at the regional major seminary of Port of Spain and has a licentiate in pastoral counselling from the Loyola University, Maryland, U.S.A. He has served in a number of pastoral roles, such as parish priest in Gran Couva, Princess Town and Carneage, teacher and vice-rector at the regional major seminary of Port of Spain, vicar for the Pastoral of the Family, and psychological advisor for priests, religious and laity of the archdiocese. He is currently vicar general of the archdiocese of Port of Spain.
- appointed Msgr. Damian Bryl as auxiliary bishop of Poznan (area 9,000, population 1,507,000, Catholics 1,487,000, priests 1018, religious 1,516), Poland. The bishop-elect was born in Jarocin, Poland in 1969 and was ordained a priest in 1994. He holds a doctorate in moral theology from the University of Navarra. He has served in a number of roles, such as chief editor of the monthly magazine “Katecheta”, adjunct professor at the “Adam Mickiewicz” University of Poznan, and editor of the scientific magazine “Teologia e Moralnosc”. He is currently spiritual director of the major seminary in Poznan, president of the Association of Spiritual Fathers in Poland, member of the archdiocesan council for the formation of priests and the archdiocesan pastoral Commission.

ABUSE TO BE REPORTED TO UN BY VATICAN

Giuseppe Dalla Torre, president of the Vatican City State court, left, and Vatican spokesman Fr Federico Lombardi (Photo: CNS)
Giuseppe Dalla Torre, president of the Vatican City State court, left, and Vatican spokesman Fr Federico Lombardi (Photo: CNS)
CATHOLIC HERALD REPORT: A United Nations committee concerned with children’s rights is requesting that the Vatican provide complete details about every accusation it has ever received of the sexual abuse of minors by clergy.
The Committee on the Rights of the Child, which monitors implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, published “a list of issues” it found lacking in the Vatican’s latest report on its compliance with international obligations.
The Vatican is being asked to provide “detailed information on all cases of child sexual abuse committed by members of the clergy, brothers and nuns”, as well as how it has responded to victims and perpetrators of abuse, whether it ever investigated “complaints of torture and other cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment” of girls in the Magdalene laundries in Ireland and how it dealt with allegations that young boys, who were part of the Legion of Christ, were being separated from their families.
The committee also requested information on what the Vatican has done to address discrimination between boys and girls in Catholic schools, including removing sexual stereotypes in school textbooks, whether it has “clearly condemned” corporal punishment of children, if it still labels children born out of wedlock as “illegitimate”; and how it is working to prevent child abandonment and trace infants’ identities when Church-run facilities receive unwanted children, including through so-called “baby boxes”.
The committee also asked the Vatican to explain what measures it took to “avoid retaliation against child victims of pornography” and whistleblowers, and whether the Vatican ever investigated recently discovered allegations of thousands of babies being “sold for adoption over the past decades in Spain by a network of doctors, nun and priests”.
The committee had also requested that the Vatican clarify whether it had explicitly defined and criminalised the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography.
In an on-going effort to bring its legal system and laws up to date, the Vatican issued a number of new measures this week to comply with provisions required by a number of UN conventions the Vatican is party to, including explicitly outlawing the crime of torture and providing a broader definition of the category of crimes against minors.
Giuseppe Dalla Torre, president of the Vatican City State court, told reporters that such offences were always crimes in the Vatican, but a new law makes the criminal activities and penalties more explicit. That’s because the penal code used by the Vatican is based on Italian laws from the 19th to early 20th centuries, which meant there were no provisions against some things, such as child pornography.
The UN committee requires governments of signatory countries of the convention and its two optional protocols on child trafficking and on armed conflict to submit a comprehensive review of how convention regulations are being implemented, as well as progress reports every five years.
The Vatican has been party to the 1989 convention since 1990, but had been lagging behind in turning in its mandatory reports.
After reviewing the Vatican’s most recent periodic report, the UN committee published in response a four-page outline of concerns and requests for additional information and clarifications. It asked the Vatican to respond by November, before the committee meets for further review in January 2014.
The Holy See was just one of six countries, including Germany, Russia and Yemen, whose reviews by the UN committee were published in early July on the committee’s website.
Almost all of the reviews requested more information about how countries were dealing with the problems of sexual abuse, violence and corporal punishment against minors, though without the kind of detail requested of the Vatican.
Each review was also tailored to specific situations of concern in each country, such as female genital mutilation and child marriages in Yemen, criteria used to remove children from their parents in Russia, and mental health guidelines in Germany for diagnosing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.
SHARED FROM CATHOLIC HERALD CO.UK

FACEBOOK ALTERNATIVE FOR PRO-LIFE MOVEMENT PROLIFEBOOK.COM

PROLIFE BOOK is an alternative to many mainstream social networking sites. It celebrates 5 years in social networking and has thousands of members. 
PROLIFEBOOK.COM ABOUT: World Life is a Christian-Prolife ministry. We at World Life believe that every abortion takes the life of an innocent human being and wounds the mothers who are often victims as well. Given that there are more than 50 million abortions performed annually world wide, abortion is arguably the greatest injustice in the history of mankind.

Doing our best to “be as wise as serpents and gentle as doves”, World Life engages in creative, high impact prolife activism through projects that are aimed at revealing the amazing world of prenatal development and exposing the horror of abortion. World Life collaborates with prolife groups worldwide to carry out these projects.

World Life also provides cutting edge technology and tools to enable networking and collaboration for the prolife movement. These tools equip the prolife movement with resources, content and training for reaching the world with a powerful prolife message.
It is a matter of objective fact that abortion is an act of violence against an innocent human being. The evidence of this is incontravertible. But this evidence is often covered up and hidden. At World Life we believe that the facts about prenatal development and the facts about abortion are the prolife movement’s most powerful facts for persuasion to a prolife position. Until the world sees who the baby is and what abortion is, the baby will continue to be an abstraction to most and abortion will be considered a nominal evil at best. As Father Frank Pavone of Priests for Life says, “America will not reject abortion until America sees abortion.”
At World Life we believe that women are victims of the abortion industry and that abortion is misogynistic at its core. Gender selection abortion has become so prevalent throughout the world that there are literally millions of baby girls that have been killed simply because their gender was less desirable. Women are often forced or pressured into abortion. Facts and information are often withheld from women who would otherwise carry their baby to term if they were only given the facts and information.

If we do not reveal those facts then who will? We at World Life believe that abortion, by God’s grace, can someday be made unthinkable. Please join us in this fight.

We condemn abortion-related violence in all forms.

JOIN PROLIFEBOOK TODAY - http://www.prolifebook.com 

A DAY WITH MARY - IN BENIN AFRICA

The-Virgin-Mary-is-the-sign-of-Catholicism”-says-Priests
CISA REPORT: COTONOU, July 12, 2013 (CISA) – Fr Juan Diego Gay, Franciscan Missionary of the Immaculate has said that there is a Catholic instinct of openness to the Madonna” on the initiative “A Day with Mary”, a form of Marian pastoral focused on the message of Fatima.
“Of course this Country has a predilection towards the Madonna,” says the missionary. “She was consecrated several times, especially after the communist revolution when there was a gathering of all the living forces of the Nation under the leadership of Msg Isidore de Souza, then Archbishop of Cotonou. He wanted to create a diocesan pilgrimage center, a center where all the parishes can come together on a pilgrimage at least once a year to pray and thank the Virgin, to realize, almost materialize this union with Mary”.
“We must not also forget the presence of a radio totally consecrated to the Virgin Mary in this Archdiocese, in Allada, which has been broadcasting its programs almost all over the country since 1998.
Fr Juan Diego describes the Marian fervor of Catholics in Benin: “people realize that with the Madonna, in evangelization, we can have easier access to Jesus. There is great happiness, it can be seen here in the popular preaching, talking to people, with the Confraternity of the Rosary, prayer groups …, in shops … you will see many Marian names in the streets and a certain pride and satisfaction of being Catholic”.
“The Virgin Mary is like a fortress, as a distinguishing mark, because here there is also a Protestant presence, of evangelicals; therefore Our Lady has become precisely the sign of Catholicism in Benin” says the missionary.
Fr Juan Diego was speaking to Fides.
SHARED FROM CISA NEWS AFRICA 

COUPLES FILL CATHEDRAL TO RENEW MARRIAGE VOWS WITH CARDINAL PELL

Catholic Communications, Sydney Archdiocese report:
15 Jul 2013
Cardinal Pell with couples celebrating Golden Milestone wedding anniversaries at yesterday's Marriage Mass at the Cathedral
Married just seven months, newly-weds Belinda and Graham Connolly were among 53 couples who attended the Marriage Mass at St Mary's Cathedral yesterday and renewed their marriage vows.
The 10.30 Mass which was celebrated by the Archbishop of Sydney, Cardinal George Pell was strictly standing room only as each of the couples were joined by family and friends, and in some cases members of the original wedding part at their marriage 60 and 65 years ago.
The Marriage Mass and Renewal of Vows was held for the first time last year and promises to become one of a much loved and much anticipated tradition.
Open to newly-weds as well as those who celebrated a milestone wedding anniversary over the past 12 months, the Mass is a chance for couples of all ages to thank God for the precious gift of marriage and an opportunity to renew their wedding vows.
Newlyweds Belinda and Graham Connolly led the renewal of vows at yesterday's Marriage Mass at St Mary's Cathedral
For Rosina and Ross Rocca of Ryde who celebrated 60 years of marriage on 17 June, yesterday's Mass was both moving and emotional.
"It was a lovely Mass," Rosina told family, adding she and her husband Ross felt "very honoured to have been part of it."
Among the couples at the Marriage Mass the majority had celebrated 25, 30, 40, 50, 60 and in one case 65 years of marriage over the past year.
For others like Belinda and Graham Connolly, the Mass was a chance to give thanks for their profound happiness and the blessing of marriage, as well as a chance to reflect on how they first met and the seven months since they became man and wife.
The couple first met when they both involved with St Patrick's Catholic Church at Church Hill, one of the oldest and loveliest churches in the city, where they were both involved in the parish Bible Study and Young Adult Activities program.
Both are professional careerists. Graham is a barrister specialising in commercial and constitutional law who before being called to the Bar served as a Naval Intelligence Officer in East Timor, Iraq, Afghanistan and the Persian Gulf.
Cardinal Pell congratulates Ivy and Clifford Fernandes (on his left) and their family on 65 years of marriage at yesterday's Marriage Mass at the Cathedral
Belinda a Religious Education Co-ordinator and teacher at Kincoppal-Rose Bay, and is currently completing a Master of Theology degree and when the two met in 2009, they not only found they had similar values in terms of their Catholic faith but in regard to their work ethic, their love of high culture and a shared passion for travel.
  
"One of our first dates was when Graham was invested as a Knight of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem by the Cardinal Grand Master of the Order at St Mary's Cathedral and is something I will never forget," Belinda says of the ceremony at St Mary's Cathedral on 11 October 2009 when the late American-born Cardinal conferred knighthoods on Graham and four other leading members of the Sydney Archdiocese. 
Two years later, Graham knew Belinda was the girl he wanted to marry, raise a family with and spend the rest of his life with. This is when he began planning his proposal. First he made a top secret visit to Belinda's parents to obtain their permission to marry their daughter. Then he had a top Sydney jeweller create an engagement ring that he knew she would love.
Belinda and Graham Connolly on their wedding day on 15 December last year
Three months later on Valentine's Day 2012 everything was organised. The diamond ring in his pocket, he waited until sunset before taking Belinda to the Pedestrian Bridge at Vaucluse, where overlooking the harbour, he got down on one knee to read from a especially-created calligraphy scroll the words of his carefully planned proposal.
Belinda of course said yes and radiant with happiness, she was whisked off by Graham to one of the city's most romantic restaurants to celebrate.
Ten months later on 15 December the couple were married by Bishop Julian Porteous, the Archdiocese of Sydney's Vicar for Renewal and Evangelisation at the French Chapel at Kincoppal-Rose Bay.  The Nuptial Mass has been planned with the same detail as Graham's proposal and featured French and Latin music by a string quarter and the chapel's French Puget organ accompanied by an operatic choir.
A Papal Blessing was conferred on their marriage by his Holiness, Pope Benedict XVI. 
Participating in yesterday's Marriage Mass was important to both Belinda and Graham, the young couple insist.
"We attend Mass every weekend but as a newly-married Catholic couple we wanted to join with other couples in a Mass where marriage is celebrated as a Sacrament," Graham explained.
Cardinal Pell with newly-weds Graham and Belinda Connolly
Determined to have a long and happy life together, he says God is at the centre of his marriage to Belinda and that they share their faith journey together.
For a successful marriage he also believes that communication is essential, along with teamwork, honesty, trust, kindness in all things big or small, devotion to one another and support for each other's goals as well as a sense of humour and fun.
Their advice for other young couples starting out and thinking about marriage is to "pray together, put each other first and share quality time together."
SHARED FROM ARCHDIOCESE OF SYDNEY

TODAY'S MASS ONLINE : TUES. JULY 15, 2013

Tuesday of the Fifteenth Week in Ordinary Time
Lectionary: 390


Reading 1                EX 2:1-15A

A certain man of the house of Levi married a Levite woman,
who conceived and bore a son.
Seeing that he was a goodly child, she hid him for three months.
When she could hide him no longer, she took a papyrus basket,
daubed it with bitumen and pitch,
and putting the child in it,
placed it among the reeds on the river bank.
His sister stationed herself at a distance
to find out what would happen to him.

Pharaoh’s daughter came down to the river to bathe,
while her maids walked along the river bank.
Noticing the basket among the reeds, she sent her handmaid to fetch it.
On opening it, she looked, and lo, there was a baby boy, crying!
She was moved with pity for him and said,
“It is one of the Hebrews’ children.”
Then his sister asked Pharaoh’s daughter,
“Shall I go and call one of the Hebrew women
to nurse the child for you?”
“Yes, do so,” she answered.
So the maiden went and called the child’s own mother.
Pharaoh’s daughter said to her,
“Take this child and nurse it for me, and I will repay you.”
The woman therefore took the child and nursed it.
When the child grew, she brought him to Pharaoh’s daughter,
who adopted him as her son and called him Moses;
for she said, “I drew him out of the water.”

On one occasion, after Moses had grown up,
when he visited his kinsmen and witnessed their forced labor,
he saw an Egyptian striking a Hebrew, one of his own kinsmen.
Looking about and seeing no one,
he slew the Egyptian and hid him in the sand.
The next day he went out again, and now two Hebrews were fighting!
So he asked the culprit,
“Why are you striking your fellow Hebrew?”
But the culprit replied,
“Who has appointed you ruler and judge over us?
Are you thinking of killing me as you killed the Egyptian?”
Then Moses became afraid and thought,
“The affair must certainly be known.”

Pharaoh, too, heard of the affair and sought to put Moses to death.
But Moses fled from him and stayed in the land of Midian.

Responsorial Psalm                     PS 69:3, 14, 30-31, 33-34

R. (see 33) Turn to the Lord in your need, and you will live.
I am sunk in the abysmal swamp
where there is no foothold;
I have reached the watery depths;
the flood overwhelms me.
R. Turn to the Lord in your need, and you will live.
But I pray to you, O LORD,
for the time of your favor, O God!
In your great kindness answer me
with your constant help.
R. Turn to the Lord in your need, and you will live.
But I am afflicted and in pain;
let your saving help, O God, protect me;
I will praise the name of God in song,
and I will glorify him with thanksgiving.
R. Turn to the Lord in your need, and you will live.
“See, you lowly ones, and be glad;
you who seek God, may your hearts revive!
For the LORD hears the poor,
and his own who are in bonds he spurns not.”
R. Turn to the Lord in your need, and you will live.

Gospel              MT 11:20-24

Jesus began to reproach the towns
where most of his mighty deeds had been done,
since they had not repented.
“Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida!
For if the mighty deeds done in your midst
had been done in Tyre and Sidon,
they would long ago have repented in sackcloth and ashes.
But I tell you, it will be more tolerable
for Tyre and Sidon on the day of judgment than for you.
And as for you, Capernaum:

Will you be exalted to heaven?
You will go down to the netherworld.


For if the mighty deeds done in your midst had been done in Sodom,
it would have remained until this day.
But I tell you, it will be more tolerable
for the land of Sodom on the day of judgment than for you.”

2013

FREE CATHOLIC MOVIES - ST. TERESA OF JESUS - DRAMA



Teresa de Jesús (1984)
TV Series  -   -  Drma

Stars: 

Concha Velasco, María Massip, Antonio Canal  

 A powerful epic mini-series shot on location in Spain that tells the story of one of the most amazing women in history, St. Teresa of Avila. With meticulous attention to detail and historical accuracy, outstanding production values, and an incredible performance by actress Concha Velasco as Teresa, this acclaimed major film production is the definitive film on the life of this great saint. Teresa of Avila was called by God to reform and renew the Carmelite order, a daunting task. She was joined in this work by her great fellow Carmelite and spiritual director, St. John of the Cross. This film reveals the conversion that Teresa herself had to go thru to deepen her own union with Christ as she endeavored to bring about that same deeper spiritual reform of her Carmelite order. It shows the tremendous opposition that she and John both faced within (and without) their order to bring about this much needed spiritual renewal. She and John of the Cross were both great mystics who combined the essential dimensions of a profound spiritual life with the very practical aspects of being completely dedicated to the human tasks necessary for such a reform.

TODAY'S SAINT: JULY 15: ST. BONAVENTURE

St. Bonaventure
DOCTOR OF THE CHURCH
Feast: July 15


Information:
Feast Day:July 15
Born:1221, Bagnoregio, Province of Viterbo, Latium, Papal States (now modern-day Italy)
Died:July 15, 1274, Lyon, Lyonnais, Kingdom of Arles (now modern-day France)
Canonized:April 14, 1482, Rome by Pope Sixtus IV
Doctor of the Church, Cardinal-Bishop of Albano, Minister General of the Friars Minor, born at Bagnorea in the vicinity of Viterbo in 1221; died at Lyons, 16 July, 1274.
Nothing is known of Bonaventure's parents save their names: Giovanni di Fidanza and Maria Ritella. How his baptismal name of John came to be changed to that of Bonaventure is not clear. An attempt has been made to trace the latter name to the exclamation of St. Francis, O buona ventura, when Bonaventure was brought as an infant to him to be cured of a dangerous illness. This derivation is highly improbable; it seems based on a latefifteenth-century legend. Bonaventure himself tells us (Legenda S. Francisci Prolog.) that while yet a child he was preserved from death through the intercession of St. Francis, but there is no evidence that this cure took place during the lifetime of St. Francis or that the name Bonaventure originated in any prophetical words of St. Francis. It was certainly borne by others before the Seraphic Doctor. No details of Bonaventure's youth have been preserved. He entered the Order of Friars Minor in 1238 or 1243; the exact year is uncertain. Wadding and the Bollandists bold for the later date, but the earlier one is supported by Sbaradea, Bonelli, Panfilo da Magliano, and Jeiler, and appears more probable. It is certain that Bonaventure was sent from the Roman Province, to which he belonged, to complete his studies at the University of Paris under Alexander of Hales, the great founder of the Franciscan School. The latter died in 1246, according to the opinion generally received, though not yet definitely established, and Bonaventure seems to have become his pupil about 1242. Be this as it may, Bonaventure received in 1248 the "licentiate" which gave him the right to teach publicly as Magister regens, and he continued to lecture at the university with great success until 1256, when he was compelled to discontinue, owing to the then violent outburst of opposition to the Mendicant orders on the part of the secular professors at the university. The latter, jealous, as it seems, of the academic successes of the Dominicans and Franciscans, sought to exclude them from teaching publicly. The smouldering elements of discord had been fanned into a flame in 1256, when Guillaume de Saint-Amour published a work entitled "The Perils of the Last Times", in which he attacked the Friars with great bitterness. It was in connexion with this dispute that Bonaventure wrote his treatise, "De paupertate Christi". It was not, however, Bonaventure, as some have erroneously stated, but Blessed John of Parma, who appeared before Alexander IV at Anagni to defend the Franciscans against their adversary. The Holy See having, as is well known, re-established the Mendicants in all their privileges, and Saint-Amour's book having been formally condemned, the degree of Doctor was solemnly bestowed on St. Bonaventure and St. Thomas Aquinas at the university, 23 October, 1257.
In the meantime Bonaventure, though not yet thirty-six years old, had on 2 February, 1257, been elected Minister General of the Friars Minor -- an office of peculiar difficulty, owing to the fact that the order was distracted by internal dissensions between the two factions among the Friars designated respectively the Spirituales and the Relaxati. The former insisted upon the literal observance of the original Rule, especially in regard to poverty, while the latter wished to introduce innovations and mitigations. This lamentable controversy had moreover been aggravated by the enthusiasm with which many of the "Spiritual" Friars had adopted the doctrines connected with the name of Abbot Joachim of Floris and set forth in the so-called "Evangelium aeternum". The introduction to this pernicious book, which proclaimed the approaching dispensation of the Spirit that was to replace the Law of Christ, was falsely attributed to Bl. John of Parma, who in 1267 had retired from the government of the order in favour of Bonaventure. The new general lost no time in striking vigorously at both extremes within the order. On the one hand, he proceeded against several of the Joachimite "Spirituals" as heretics before an ecclesiastical tribunal at Città della Pieve; two of their leaders were condemned to perpetual imprisonment, and John of Parma was only saved from a like fate through the personal intervention of Cardinal Ottoboni, afterwards Adrian V. On the other hand, Bonaventure had, in an encyclical letter issued immediately after his election, outlined a programme for the reformation of the Relaxati. These reforms he sought to enforce three years later at the General Chapter of Narbonne when the constitutions of the order which he had revised were promulgated anew. These so-called "Constitutiones Narbonenses" are distributed under twelve heads, corresponding to the twelve chapters of the Rule, of which they form an enlightened and prudent exposition, and are of capital importance in the history of Franciscan legislation. The chapter which issued this code of laws requested Bonaventure to write a "legend" or life of St. Francis which should supersede those then in circulation. This was in 1260. Three years later Bonaventure, having in the meantime visited a great part of the order, and having assisted at the dedication of the chapel on La Verna and at the translation of the remains of St. Clare and of St. Anthony, convoked a general chapter of the order of Pisa at which his newly composed life of St. Francis was officially approved as the standard biography of the saint to the exclusion of all others. At this chapter of 1263, Bonaventure fixed the limits of the different provinces of the order and, among other ordinances, prescribed that at nightfall a bell should be rung in honour of the Annunciation, a pious practice from which the Angelus seems to have originated. There are no grounds, however, for the assertion that Bonaventure in this chapter prescribed the celebration of the feast of the Immaculate Conception in the order. In 1264, at the earnest request of Cardinal Cajetan, Bonaventure consented to resume the direction of the Poor Clares which the Chapter of Pisa had entirely renounced the year before. He required the Clares, however, to acknowledge occasionally in writing that the favours tendered them by the Friars were voluntary acts of charity not arising from any obligation whatsoever. It is said that Pope Urban IV acted at Bonaventure's suggestion in attempting to establish uniformity of observance throughout all the monasteries of Clares. About this time (1264) Bonaventure founded at Rome the Society of the Gonfalone in honour of the Blessed Virgin which, if not the first confraternity instituted in the Church, as some have claimed, was certainly one of the earliest. In 1265 Clement IV, by a Bull dated 23 November, nominated Bonaventure to the vacant Archbishopric of York, but the saint, in keeping with his singular humility, steadfastly refused this honour and the pope yielded.
In 1266 Bonaventure convened a general chapter in Paris at which, besides other enactments, it was decreed that all the "legends" of St. Francis written before that of Bonaventure should be forthwith destroyed, just as the Chapter of Narbonne had in 1260 ordered the destruction of all constitutions before those then enacted. This decree has excited much hostile criticism. Some would fain see in it a deliberate attempt on Bonaventure's part to close the primitive sources of Franciscan history, to suppress the real Francis, and substitute a counterfeit in his stead. Others, however, regard the decree in question as a purely liturgical ordinance intended to secure uniformity in the choir "legends". Between these two conflicting opinions the truth seems to be that this edict was nothing more than another heroic attempt to wipe out the old quarrels and start afresh. One cannot but regret the circumstances of this decree, but when it is recalled that the appeal of the contending parties was ever to the words and actions of St. Francis as recorded in the earlier "legends", it would be unjust to accuse the chapter of "literary vandalism" in seeking to proscribe the latter. We have no details of Bonaventure's life between 1266 and 1269. In the latter year he convoked his fourth general chapter at Assisi, in which it was enacted that a Mass be sung every Saturday throughout the order in honour of the Blessed Virgin, not, however, in honour of her Immaculate Conception as Wadding among others has erroneously stated. It was probably soon after this chapter that Bonaventure composed his "Apologia pauperum", in which he silences Gerard of Abbeville who by means of an anonymous libel had revived the old university feud against the Friars. Two years later, Bonaventure was mainly instrumental in reconciling the differences among the cardinals assembled at Viterbo to elect a successor to Clement IV, who had died nearly three years before; it was on Bonaventure's advice that, 1 September, 1271, they unanimously chose Theobald Visconti of Piacenza who took the title of Gregory X. That the cardinals seriously authorized Bonaventure to nominate himself, as some writers aver, is most improbable. Nor is there any truth in the popular story that Bonaventure on arriving at Viterbo advised the citizens to lock up the cardinals with a view to hastening the election. In 1272 Bonaventure for the second time convened a general chapter at Pisa in which, apart from general enactments to further regular observances new decrees were issued respecting the direction of the Poor Clares, and a solemn anniversary was instituted on 25 August in memory of St. Louis. This was the first step towards the canonization of the holy king, who had been a special friend of Bonaventure, and at whose request Bonaventure composed his "Office of the Passion". On 23 June, 1273, Bonaventure, much against his will, was created Cardinal-Bishop of Albano, by Gregory X. It is said that the pope's envoys who brought him the cardinal's hat found the saint washing dishes outside a convent near Florence and were requested by him to hang it on a tree nearby until his hands were free to take it. Bonaventure continued to govern the Order of Friars Minor until 20 May, 1274, when at the General Chapter of Lyons, Jerome of Ascoli, afterwards Nicholas IV, was elected to succeed him. Meanwhile Bonaventure had been charged by Gregory X to prepare the questions to be discussed at the Fourteenth Oecumenical Council, which opened at Lyons 7 May, 1274.
The pope himself presided at the council, but he confided the direction of its deliberations to Bonaventure, especially charging him to confer with the Greeks on the points relating to the abjuration of their schism. It was largely due to Bonaventure's efforts and to those of the Friars whom he had sent to Constantinople, that the Greeks accepted the union effected 6 July, 1274. Bonaventure twice addressed the assembled Fathers, on 18 May, during a session of the Council, when he preached on Baruch 5:5, and on 29 June, during pontifical Mass celebrated by the pope. While the council was still in session, Bonaventure died, Sunday, 15 July, 1274. The exact cause of his death is unknown, but if we may credit the chronicle of Peregrinus of Bologna, Bonaventure's secretary, which has recently (1905) been recovered and edited, the saint was poisoned. He was buried on the evening following his death in the church of the Friars Minor at Lyons, being honoured with a splendid funeral which was attended by the pope, the King of Aragon, the cardinals, and the other members of the council. The funeral oration was delivered by Pietro di Tarantasia, O.P., Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia, afterwards Innocent V, and on the following day during the fifth session of the council, Gregory X spoke of the irreparable loss the Church had sustained by the death of Bonaventure, and commanded all prelates and priests throughout the whole world to celebrate Mass for the repose of his soul.
Bonaventure enjoyed especial veneration even during his lifetime because of his stainless character and of the miracles attributed to him. It was Alexander of Hales who said that Bonaventure seemed to have escaped the curse of Adam's sin. And the story of St. Thomas visiting Bonaventure's cell while the latter was writing the life of St. Francis and finding him in an ecstasy is well known. "Let us leave a saint to work for a saint", said the Angelic Doctor as he withdrew. When, in 1434, Bonaventure's remains were translated to the new church erected at Lyons in honour of St. Francis, his head was found in a perfect state of preservation, the tongue being as red as in life. This miracle not only moved the people of Lyons to choose Bonaventure as their special patron, but also gave a great impetus to the process of his canonization. Dante, writing long before, had given expression to the popular mind by placing Bonaventure among the saints in his "Paradiso", and no canonization was ever more ardently or universally desired than that of Bonaventure. That its inception was so long delayed was mainly due to the deplorable dissensions within the order after Bonaventure's death. Finally on 14 April, 1482, Bonaventure was enrolled in the catalogue of the saints by Sixtus IV. In 1562 Bonaventure's shrine was plundered by the Huguenots and the urn containing his body was burned in the public square. His head was preserved through the heroism of the superior, who hid it at the cost of his life but it disappeared during the French Revolution and every effort to discover it has been in vain. Bonaventure was inscribed among the principal Doctors of the Church by Sixtus V, 14 March, 1557. His feast is celebrated 14 July.
Bonaventure, as Hefele remarks, united in himself the two elements whence proceed whatever was noble and sublime, great and beautiful, in the Middle Ages, viz., tender piety and profound learning. These two qualities shine forth conspicuously in his writings. Bonaventure wrote on almost every subject treated by the Schoolmen, and his writings are very numerous. The greater number of them deal with philosophy and theology. No work of Bonaventure's is exclusively philosophical, but in his "Commentary on the Sentences", his "Breviloquium", his "Itinerarium Mentis in Deum" and his "De reductione Artium ad Theologiam", he deals with the most important and difficult questions of philosophy in such a way that these four works taken together contain the elements of a complete system of philosophy, and at the same time bear striking witness to the mutual interpenetration of philosophy and theology which is a distinguishing mark of the Scholastic period. The Commentary on the "Sentences" remains without doubt Bonaventure's greatest work; all his other wntings are in some way subservient to it. It was written, superiorum praecepto (at the command of his superiors) when he was only twenty-seven and is a theological achievement of the first rank. It comprises more than four thousand pages in folio and treats extensively and profoundly of God and the Trinity, the Creation and Fall of Man, the Incarnation and Redemption, Grace, the Sacraments, and the Last Judgment, that is to say, traverses the entire field of Scholastic theology. Like the other medieval Summas, Bonaventure's "Commentary" is divided into four books. In the first, second, and fourth Bonaventure can compete favourably with the best commentaries on the Sentences, but it is admitted that in the third book he surpasses all others. The "Breviloquium", written before 1257, is, as its name implies, a shorter work. It is to some extent a summary of the "Commentary" containing as Scheeben says, the quintessence of the theology of the time, and is the most sublime compendium of dogma in our possession. It is perhaps the work which will best give a popular notion of Bonaventure's theology; in it his powers are seen at their best. Whilst the "Breviloquium" derives all things from God, the "Itinerarium Mentis in Deum" proceeds in the opposite direction, bringing all things back to their Supreme End. The latter work, which formed the delight of Gerson for more than thirty years, and from which Bl. Henry Suso drew so largely, was written on Mount la Verna in 1259. The relation of the finite and infinite, the natural and supernatural, is again dealt with by Bonaventure, in his "De reductione Artium ad Theologiam", a little work written to demonstrate the relation which philosophy and the arts bear to theology, and to prove that they are all absorbed in it as into a natural centre. It must not be inferred, however, that philosophy in Bonaventure's view does not possess an existence of its own. The passages in Bonaventure's works on which such an opinion might be founded only go to prove that he did not regard philosophy as the chief or last end of scientific research and speculation. Moreover, it is only when compared with theology that he considers philosophy of an inferior order. Considered in itself, philosophy is, according to Bonaventure, a true science, prior in point of time to theology. Again, Bonaventure's pre-eminence as a mystic must not he suffered to overshadow his labours in the domain of philosophy, for he was undoubtedly one of the greatest philosophers of the Middle Ages.
Bonaventure's philosophy, no less than his theology, manifests his profound respect for tradition. He regarded new opinions with disfavour and ever strove to follow those generally received in his time. Thus, between the two great influences which determined the trend of Scholasticism about the middle of the thirteenth century, there can he no doubt that Bonaventure ever remained a faithful disciple of Augustine and always defended the teaching of that Doctor; yet he by no means repudiated the teaching of Aristotle. While basing his doctrine on that of the old school, Bonaventure borrowed not a little from the new. Though he severely criticized the defects of Aristotle, he is said to have quoted more frequently from the latter than any former Scholastic had done. Perhaps he inclined more, on the whole, to some general views of Plato than to those of Aristotle, but he cannot therefore be called a Platonist. Although he adopted the hylomorphic theory of matter and form, Bonaventure, following Alexander of Hales, whose Summa he appears to have had before him in composing his own works, does not limit matter to corporeal beings, but holds that one and the same kind of matter is the substratum of spiritual and corporeal beings alike. According to Bonaventure, materia prima is not a mere indeterminatum quid, but contains the rationes seminales infused by the Creator at the beginning, and tends towards the acquisition of those special forms which it ultimately assumes. The substantial form is not in Bonaventure's opinion, essentially, one, as St. Thomas taught. Another point in which Bonaventure, as representing the Franciscan school, is at variance with St. Thomas is that which concerns the possibility of creation from eternity. He declares that reason can demonstrate that the world was not created ab aeterno. In his system of ideology Bonaventure does not favour either the doctrine of Plato or that of the Ontologists. It is only by completely misunderstanding Bonaventure's teaching that any ontologistic interpretation can he read into it. For he is most emphatic in rejecting any direct or immediate vision of God or of His Divine attributes in this life. For the rest, the psychology of Bonaventure differs in no essential point from the common teaching of the Schoolmen. The same is true, as a whole, of his theology.
Bonaventure's theological writings may be classed under four heads: dogmatic, mystic, exegetical, and homiletic. His dogmatic teaching is found chiefly in his "Commentary on the Sentences" and in his "Breviloquium". Treating of the Incarnation, Bonaventure does not differ substantially from St. Thomas. In answer to the question: "Would the Incarnation have taken place if Adam had not sinned?", he answers in the negative. Again, notwithstanding his deep devotion to the Blessed Virgin, he favours the opinion which does not exempt her from original sin, quia magis consonat fidei pietati et sanctorum auctoritati. But Bonaventure's treament of this question marked a distinct advance, and he did more perhaps than anyone before Scotus to clear the ground for its correct presentation. His treatise on the sacraments is largely practical and is characterized by a distinctly devotional element. This appears especially in is treatment of the Holy Eucharist. He rejects the doctrine of physical, and admits only a moral, efficacy in the sacraments. It is much to be regretted that Bonaventure's views on this and other controverted questions should be so often misrepresented, even by recent writers. For example, at, least three of the latest and best known manuals of dogma in treating of such questions as "De angelorum natura", "De scientia Christi", "De natura distinctionis inter caritatem et gratiam sanctificantem", "De causalitate sacramentorum", "De statu parvulorum sine baptismo morientium", gratuitously attribute opinions to Bonaventure which are entirely at variance with his real teaching. To be sure Bonaventure, like all the Scholastics, occasionally put forward opinions not strictly correct in regard to questions not yet defined or clearly settled, but even here his teaching represents the most profound and acceptable ideas of his age and marks a notable stage in the evolution of knowledge. Bonaventure's authority has always been very great in the Church. Apart from his personal influence at Lyons (1274), his writings carried great weight at the subsequent councils at Vienna (1311), Constance (1417), Basle (1435), and Florence (1438). At Trent (1546) his writings, as Newman remarks (Apologia, ch. v) had a critical effect on some of the definitions of dogma, and at the Vatican Council (1870), sentences from them were embodied in the decrees concerning papal supremacy and infallibility.
Only a small part of Bonaventure's writings is properly mystical. These are characterized by brevity and by a faithful adherence to the teaching of the Gospel. The perfecting of the soul by the uprooting of vice and the implanting of virtue is his chief concern. There is a degree of prayer in which ecstasy occurs. When it is attained, God is sincerely to be thanked. It must, however, be regarded only as incidental. It is by no means essential to the possession of perfection in the highest degree. Such is the general outline of Bonaventure's mysticism which is largely a continuation and development of what the St. Victors had already laid down. The shortest and most complete summary of it is found in his "De Triplici Via", often erroneously entitled the "Incendium Amoris", in which he distinguishes the different stages or degrees of perfect charity. What the "Breviloquium" is to Scholasticism, the "De Triplici Via" is to mysticism: a perfect compendium of all that is best in it. Savonarola made a pious and learned commentary upon it. Perhaps the best known of Bonaventure's other mystical and ascetical writings are the "Soliloquium", a sort of dialogue containing a rich collection of passages from the Fathers on spiritual questions; the "Lignum vitae", a series of forty-eight devout meditations on the life of Christ, the "De sex alis seraphim", a precious opuscule on the virtues of superiors, which Father Claudius Acquaviva caused to be printed separately and circulated throughout the Society of Jesus; the "Vitis mystica", a work on the Passion, which was for a long time erroneously ascribed to St. Bernard, and "De Perfectione vitae", a treatise which depicts the virtues that make for religious perfection, and which appears to have been written for the use of Blessed Isabella of France, who had founded a monastery of Poor Clares at Longchamps.
Bonaventure's exegetical works were highly esteemed in the Middle Ages and still remain a treasure house of thoughts and treatises. They include commentaries on the Books of Ecclesiastes and Wisdom and on the Gospels of St. Luke and St. John. In addition to his commentary on the Fourth Gospel, Bonaventure composed "Collationes in Joannem", ninety-one conferences on subjects relating to it. His "Collationes in Hexameron" is a work of the same kind, but its title, which did not originate with Bonaventure, is somewhat misleading. It consists of an unfinished course of instructions delivered at Paris in 1273. Bonaventure did not intend in these twenty-one discourses to explain the work of the six days, but rather to draw some analogous instructions from the first chapter of Genesis, as a warning to his auditors against some errors of the day. It is an exaggeration to say that Bonaventure had regard only to the mystical sense of Scripture. In such of his writings as are properly exegetical he follows the text, though he also develops the practical conclusions deduced from it, for in the composition of these works he had the advantage of the preacher mainly in view. Bonaventure had conceived the most sublime idea of the ministry of preaching, and notwithstanding his manifold labours in other fields, this ministry ever held an especial place among his labours. He neglected no opportunity of preaching, whether to the clergy, the people, or his own Friars, and Bl. Francis of Fabriano (d. 1322), his contemporary and auditor, bears witness that Bonaventure's renown as a preacher almost surpassed his fame as a teacher. He preached before popes and kings, in Spain and Germany, as well as in France and Italy. Nearly five hundred authentic sermons of Bonaventure have come down to us; the greater part of them were delivered in Paris before the university while Bonaventure was professor there, or after he had become minister general. Most of them were taken down by some of his auditors and thus preserved to posterity. In his sermons he follows the Scholastic method of putting forth the divisions of his subject and then expounding each division according to the different senses.
Besides his philosophical and theological writings, Bonaventure left a number of works referring to the religious life, but more especially to the Franciscan Order. Among the latter is his well-known explanation of the Rule of the Friars Minor; in this work, written at a time when the dissensions vithin the order as to the observance of the Rule were so painfully marked, he adopted a conciliatory attitude, approving neither the interpretation of the Zelanti nor that of the Relaxati. His aim was to promote harmony in essentials. With this end in view, he had chosen a middle course at the outset and firmly adhered to it during the seventeen years of his generalship. If anyone could have succeeded in uniting the order, it would have been Bonaventure; but the via media proved impracticable, and Bonaventure's personality only served to hold in check the elements of discord, subsequently represented by the Conventuals and the Fraticelli. Following upon his explanation of the Rule comes Bonaventure's important treatise embodying the Constitutions of Narbonne already referred to. There is also an answer by Bonaventure to some questions concerning the Rule, a treatise on the guidance of novices, and an opuscule in which Bonaventure states why the Friars Minor preach and hear confessions, besides a number of letters which give us a special insight into the saint's character. These include official letters written by Bonaventure as general to the superiors of the order, as well as personal letters addressed like that "Ad innominatum magistrum" to private individuals. Bonaventure's beautiful "Legend" or life of St. Francis completes the writings in which he strove to promote the spiritual welfare of his brethren. This well-known work is composed of two parts of very unequal value. In the first Bonaventure publishes the unedited facts that he had been able to gather at Assisi and elsewhere; in the other he merely abridges and repeats what others, and especially Celano, had already recorded. As a whole, it is essentially a legenda pacis, compiled mainly with a view to pacifying the unhappy discord still ravaging the order. St. Bonaventure's aim was to present a general portrait of the holy founder which, by the omission of certain points that had given rise to controversy, should be acceptable to all parties. This aim was surely legitimate even though from a critical standpoint the work may not be a perfect biography. Of this "Legenda Major", as it came to be called, Bonaventure made an abridgment arranged for use in choir and known as the "Legenda Minor".
Bonaventure was the true heir and follower of Alexander of Hales and the continuator of the old Franciscan school founded by the Doctor Irrefragabilis, but he surpassed the latter in acumen, fertility of imagination, and originality of expression. His proper place is heside his friend St. Thomas, as they are the two greatest theologians of Scholasticism. If it be true that the system of St. Thomas is more finished than that of Bonaventure, it should be borne in mind that, whereas Thomas was free to give himself to study to the end of his days, Bonaventure had not yet received the Doctor's degree when he was called to govern his order and overwhelmed with multifarious cares in consequence. The heavy responsibilities which he bore till within a few weeks of his death were almost incompatible with further study and even precluded his completing what he had begun before his thirty-sixth year. Again, in attempting to make a comparison betweenBonaventure and St. Thomas, we should remember that the two saints were of a different bent of mind; each had qualities in which he excelled; one was in a sense the complement of the other; one supplied what the other lacked. Thus Thomas was analytical, Bonaventure synthetical; Thomas was the Christian Aristotle, Bonaventure the true disciple of Augustine; Thomas was the teacher of the schools, Bonaventure of practical life; Thomas enlightened the mind, Bonaventure inflamed the heart; Thomas extended the Kingdom of God by the love of theology, Bonaventure by the theology of love. Even those who hold that Bonaventure does not reach the level of St. Thomas in the sphere of Scholastic speculation concede that as a mystic he far surpasses the Angelic Doctor. In this particular realm of thelogy, Bonaventure equals, if he does not excel, St. Bernard himself. Leo XIII rightly calls Bonaventure the Prince of Mystics: "Having scaled the difficult heights of speculation in a most notable manner, he treated of mystical theology with such perfection that in the common opinion of the learned he is facile princeps in that field." (Allocutio of 11 October, 1890.) It must not be concluded, however, that Bonaventure's mystical writings constitute his chief title to fame. This conclusion, in so far as it seems to imply a deprecation of his labours in the field of Scholasticism, is opposed to the explicit utterances of several pontiffs and eminent scholars, is incompatible with Bonaventure's acknowledged reputation in the Schools, and is excluded by an intelligent perusal of his works. As a matter of fact, the half of one volume of the ten comprising the Quaracchi edition suffices to contain Bonaventure's ascetic and mystic writings. Although Bonaventure's mystical works alone would suffice to place him in the foremost rank, yet he may justly be called a mystic rather than a Scholastic only in so far as every subject he treats of is made ultimately to converge upon God. This abiding sense of God's presence which pervades all the writings of Bonaventure is perhaps their fundamental attribute. To it we may trace that all-pervading unction which is their peculiar characteristic. As Sixtus V aptly expresses it: "In writing he united to the highest erudition an equal amount of the most ardent piety; so that whilst enlightening his readers he also touched their hearts penetrating to the inmost recesses of their souls" (Bull, Triumphantis Jerusalem). St. Antoninus, Denis the Carthusian, Louis of Granada, and Father Claude de la Colombière, among others, have also noted this feature of Bonaventure's writings. Invariably he aims at arousing devotion as well as imparting knowledge. He never divorces the one from the other, but treats learned subjects devoutly and devout subjects learnedly. Bonaventure, however, never sacrifices truth to devotion, but his tendency to prefer an opinion which arouses devotion to a dry and uncertain speculation may go far towards explaining not a little of the widespread popularity his writings enjoyed among his contemporaries and all succeeding ages. Again Bonaventure is distinguished from the other Scholastics not only by the greater warmth of his religious teaching, but also by its practical tendency as Trithemius notes (Scriptores Eccles.). Many purely speculative questions are passed over by Bonaventure; there is a directness about all he has written. No useful purpose, he declares, is achieved by mere controversy. He is ever tolerant and modest. Thus while he himself accepts the literal interpretations of the first chapter of Genesis, Bonaventure acknowledges the admissibility of a different one and refers with admiration to the figurative explanation propounded by St. Augustine. He never condemns the opinions of others and emphatically disclaims anything like finality for his own views. Indeed he asserts the littleness of his authority, renounces all claims to originality and calls himself a "poor compiler". No doubt Bonaventure's works betray some of the defects of the learning of his day, but there is nothing in them that savours of useless subtlety. "One does not find in his pages", notes Gerson (De Examin. Doctrin.) "vain trifles or useless cavils, nor does he mix as do so many others, worldly digressions with serious theological discussions. "This", he adds, "is the reason why St. Bonaventure has been abandoned by those Scholastics who are devoid of piety, of whom the number is alas! but too large". It has been said that Bonaventure's mystical spirit unfitted him for subtle analysis. Be this as it may, one of the greatest charms of Bonaventure's writings is their simple clearness. Though he had necessarily to make use of the Scholastic method, he rose above dialectics, and though his argumentation may at times seem too cumbersome to find approval in our time, yet he writes with an ease and grace of style which one seeks in vain among the other Schoolmen. To the minds of his contemporaries impregnated with the mysticism of the Middle Ages, the spirit that breathed in Bonaventure's writings seemed to find its parallel only in the lives of those that stand nearest to the Throne, and the title of "Seraphic Doctor" bestowed upon Bonaventure is an undeniable tribute to his all-absorbing love for God. This title seems to have been first given to him in 1333 in the Prologue of the "Pantheologia" by Raynor of Pisa, O.P. He had already received while teaching in Paris the name of Doctor Devotus.
The Franciscan Order has ever regarded Bonaventure as one of the greatest Doctors and from the beginning his teaching found many distinguished expositors within the order, among the earliest being his own pupils, John Peckham later Archbishop of Canterbury, Matthew of Aquasparta, and Alexander of Alexandria (d. 1314), both of whom became ministers general of the order. The last named wrote a "Summa quaestionum S. Bonaventura. Other well-known commentaries are by John of Erfurt (d. 1317), Verilongus (d. 1464), Brulifer (d. c. 1497), de Combes (d. 1570), Trigosus (d. 1616), Coriolano (d. 1625), Zamora (d. 1649), Bontemps (d. 1672), Hauzeur (d. 1676), Bonelli (d. 1773), etc. From the fourteenth to the sixteenth century the influence of Bonaventure was undoubtedly somewhat overshadowed by that of Duns Scotus, owing largely to the prominence of the latter as champion of the Immaculate Conception in the disputes between the Franciscans and Dominicans. Sixtus V, however, founded a special chair at Rome for the study of St. Bonaventure; such chairs also existed in several universities, notably at Ingolstadt, Salzburg, Valencia, and Osuna. It is worthy of note that the Capuchins forbade their Friars to follow Scotus and ordered them to return to the study of Bonaventure. The centenary celebrations of 1874 appear to have revived interest in the life and work of St. Bonaventure. Certain it is that since then the study of his writings has steadily increased.
Unfortunately not all of Bonaventure's writings have come down to us. Some were lost before the invention of printing. On the other hand, several works have in the course of time been attributed to him which are not his. Such are the "Centiloquium", the "Speculum Disciplinæ", which is probably the work of Bernard of Besse, Bonaventure's secretary; the rhythmical "Philomela", which seems to be from the pen of John Peckham; the "Stimulus Amoris" and the "Speculum B.V.M.", written respectively by James of Milan and Conrad of Saxony; "The Legend of St. Clare", which is by Thomas of Celano; the "Meditationes vitae Christi" composed by a Friar Minor for a Poor Clare, and the "Biblia pauperum" of the Dominican Nicholas of Hanapis. Those familiar with the catalogues of European libraries are aware that no writer since the Middle Ages had been more widely read or copied than Bonaventure. The earliest catalogues of his works are those given by Salimbene (1282), Henry of Ghent (d. 1293), Ubertino of Casale (1305), Ptolemy of Lucca (1327) and the "Chronicle of the XXIV Generals" (1368). The fifteenth century saw no less than fifty editions of Bonaventure's works. More celebrated than any preceding edition was that published at Rome (1588-96) by order of Sixtus V (7 vols. in fol.). It was reprinted with but slight emendations at Metz in 1609 and at Lyons in 1678. A fourth edition appeared at Venice (13 vols. in 4to) 1751, and was reprinted at Paris in 1864. All these editions were very imperfect in so far as they include spurious works and omit genuine ones. They have been completely superseded by the celebrated critical edition published by the Friars Minor at Quaracchi, near Florence. Any scientific study of Bonaventure must be based upon this edition, upon which not only Leo XIII (13 December, 1885) and Pius X (11 April, 1904), but scholars of all creeds have lavished the highest encomiums. Nothing seems to have been omitted which could make this edition perfect and complete. In its preparation the editors visited over 400 libraries and examined nearly 52,000 manuscripts, while the first volume alone contains 20,000 variant readings. It was commenced by Father Fidelis a Fanna (d. 1881) and completed by Father Ignatius Jeiler (d. 1904): "Doctoris Seraphici S. Bonaventuræ S. H. B. Episcopi Cardinalis Opera Omnia, -- edita studio et cura P. P. Collegii S. Bonaventura in fol. ad Claras Aquas [Quaracchi] 1882-1902". In this edition the works of the saint are distributed through the ten volumes as follows: the first four contain his great "Commentaries on the Book of Sentences"; the fifth comprises eight smaller scholastic works such as the "Breviloquium" and "Itinerarium"; the sixth and seventh are devoted to his commentaries on Scripture; the eighth contains his mystical and ascetic writings and works having special reference to the order; the ninth his sermons; whilst the tenth is taken up with the index and a short sketch of the saint's life and writings by Father Ignatius Jeiler.
We do not possess any formal, contemporary biography of St. Bonaventure. That written by the Spanish Franciscan, Zamorra, who flourished before 1300, has not been preserved. The references to Bonaventure's life contained in the works of Salimbene (1282), Bernard of Besse (c. 1380), Bl. Francis of Fabriano (d. 1322), Angelo Clareno (d. 1337), Ubertino of Casale (d. 1338), Bartholomew of Pisa (d. 1399) and the "Chronicle of the XXIV Generals" (c. 1368), are in vol. X of the Quaracchi Edition (pp. 39-72).


source: http://www.ewtn.com/saintsHoly/saints/B/stbonaventure.asp#ixzz1SBhwUvFp
Post a Comment