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Friday, September 21, 2012

CATHOLIC NEWS WORLD FRIDAY SEPTEMBER 21, 2012


VATICAN : POPE : FAMILY VALUES IN FRANCE - NEW BOOK - AND OTHER NEWS
NOVENA : FEAST OF THE ANGELS - ST. MICHAEL - GABRIEL - RAPHAEL
AUSTRALIA : DOGS GIVE HOMELESS SUPPORT
AFRICA : ANGOLA : NEW HOME FOR POOR CHILDREN
ASIA : INDONESIA : EMBASSEY CLOSURES DUE TO FILM PROTESTS
EUROPE : ARCHBISHOP ON MARRIAGE COUNSELLING TO ALL

TODAY'S MASS ONLINE : FRIDAY SEPT. 21, 2012

TODAY'S SAINT: SEPT. 21: ST. MATTHEW, APOSTLE

VATICAN : POPE : FAMILY VALUES IN FRANCE - NEW BOOK - AND OTHER NEWS

FRANCE, EDUCATOR OF PEOPLES, MUST RESPOND TO THE CHALLENGE OF SECULARISED SOCIETY (Image source: RADIOVATICAN)
Vatican City, 21 September 2012 (VIS) - This morning, Benedict XVI received prelates of the Conference of Bishops of France, recalling that their country “has a long spiritual and missionary tradition, such that John Paul II called it the ‘educator of peoples’. The challenges of a widely secularised society now call us courageously and optimistically to seek a bold and creative response, by presenting the permanent newness of the Gospel”.
“With this perspective and in order to encourage the faithful of the entire world,” he continued, “I have called this Year of Faith … inviting an authentic and renewed conversion to the Lord, the only Saviour of the world”. The Pontiff then went on to enumerate the duties of the bishop who must be a “good shepherd” toward his faithful and priests, and he called upon them to maintain a “special care for their priests, particularly those who have been recently ordained and those who are elderly or in need”. The Pope praised the initiatives of the French prelates in spiritually, intellectually, and materially assisting their closest collaborators. He also recalled the scarcity of “workers for the Gospel in our days. This is why,” he said, “it is necessary to pray, and to ensure others pray, for this intention, while I encourage you to follow the formation of seminarians attentively”.
“The solution to diocesan pastoral problems that arise should not be limited to organisational matters, important though they are, because there is a danger of emphasising a search for efficiency with a sort of ‘bureaucratisation of pastoral work’, focusing on organisations and programmes that can become self-referential, for the exclusive use of the members of such organisations. … Instead, evangelisation must start from an encounter with the Lord in a dialogue established in prayer, and then concentrate on witness in order to help our contemporaries rediscover the signs of God’s presence”.
The Holy Father thanked the laity for their generosity in responding to the call to participate in Church activities, noting at the same time that it is necessary, on one hand, to remember that, “the specific mission of the laity is Christian action in the public sphere, where they act on their own initiative and in an independent manner, in the light of faith and the Church’s teaching. It is therefore necessary to safeguard the difference between the common priesthood of all the faithful and the ministerial priesthood of those ordained to serve the community: a difference that is not only of degree but of nature. On the other hand, full fidelity to the deposit of faith taught by the true Magisterium and professed by the entire Church must be maintained”.
Later the Pope spoke of one of France’s patron saints, Joan of Arc. This year the Church celebrates the sixth centenary of her birth. He noted that “one of the most original features of her holiness is precisely the link between mystical experience and political mission”, and he urged the bishops to promote her as a “model of secular sanctity in the service of the common good”.
“I would also like to emphasise the interdependence between the development of the person and the development of society itself and the fact that the family, which is the foundation of social life, is threatened in many places by a faulty conception of human nature. Defending life and the family in society is not at all backward-looking but prophetic, since it entails the promotion of values that allow the full development of the human person created in the image and likeness of God”.
Another of the tasks of a diocesan bishop is “to defend the unity of the entire Church within the portion of God’s people which has been entrusted to him, even if his heart expresses legitimately different sensitivities that merit equal pastoral concern”. In this area the Pope referred to “the specific expectations of younger generations who require proper catechesis so that they might find their place within the community of believers”. He recalled the many French youths, accompanied by their pastors, who participated in World Youth Day in Madrid, as a sign of the “new dynamism of the faith that opens the doors to hope”.
Lastly, Benedict XVI expressed his support for the programme "Diaconia 2013", which calls on diocesan and local communities as well as all believers to “put the service of all our brothers and sisters, especially the most fragile, at the heart of ecclesial outreach. May that service of our brothers and sisters, rooted in God’s love, arouse in all your faithful the desire to contribute, each to the extent of their own strengths, to making humanity a single, fraternal, and communal family in Christ”, he concluded.
TELEGRAM FOR THE DEATH OF CARDINAL FORTUNATO BALDELLI
Vatican City, 21 September 2012 (VIS) - The Holy Father sent a telegram to Pietro Baldelli for the death of his brother, Cardinal Fortunato Baldelli, penitentiary major emeritus of the Apostolic Penitentiary. The cardinal died yesterday at the age of 77. In the text the Pope recalls his "exemplary witness of Christian and priestly life", and his "dedicated and faithful service to the Holy See, especially in various diplomatic posts, always arousing appreciation for his fervent apostolic zeal and his faithfulness to the Gospel".
PROTECTING THE DIGNITY AND RIGHTS OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES
Vatican City, 21 September 2012 (VIS) - A national meeting of indigenous priests, religious and catechists of Colombia came to an end yesterday in Bogota, Colombia. During the event participants reflected on certain key themes affecting pastoral workers in indigenous communities. The meeting was organised by the Commission for Missionary Animation of the Colombian Episcopal Conference's Pastoral Centre for the Evangelisation of the Faith, and coincides with the centenary of St. Pius X's Encyclical "Lacrimabili statu".
For the occasion the Holy Father sent a message to Archbishop Ruben Salazar Gomez of Bogota, president of the Colombian Episcopal Conference, in which he notes that St. Pius X's Encyclical, "in continuity with Benedict XIV's Encyclical 'Inmensa pastorum', highlighted the need to work more diligently for the evangelisation of indigenous people, and for the constant promotion of their dignity and progress".
The Pope describes the current situation as "ripe so that - with right intention and configured to Jesus Christ Who is the Way, the Truth and the Life for all humankind - pastors and faithful may experience a growing desire to protect the dignity and rights of indigenous peoples, while these, in their turn, may feel a greater desire to do their duty in accordance with their ancestral traditions. I pray to the Almighty that, first and foremost, the sacredness of their life may be protected. They must not for any reason be coerced because God wishes no one's death and orders us to love one another as brothers. May their lands by duly protected. May no one for any reason manipulate indigenous peoples, and may they not be attracted by harmful ideologies".
THIRD BOOK OF JOSEPH RATZINGER - BENEDICT XVI TO BE PUBLISHED AT CHRISTMAS
Vatican City, 21 September 2012 (VIS) - Today in the Vatican, the Vatican Publishing House and the Italian publishers Rizzoli signed an agreement concerning the publication of Benedict XVI's latest book about the infancy of Jesus in the Gospels.
The Vatican Publishing House gives Rizzoli the mandate to to sell the rights to the work throughout the world. In Italy the book is due to appear at Christmas and will be published as a joint edition of the Vatican Publishing House and Rizzoli. The German edition is to be published by Herder which has previously published the books of Joseph Ratzinger. Work is continuing on translations into the major languages. The definitive title has not yet been made public.
Joseph Ratzinger - Benedict XVI has focused his research and his work on making known the "person and the message of Jesus".
This new and much awaited volume on the figure of Jesus in the Gospel narratives of His infancy completes the two previous volumes and is of great theological and academic importance. The earlier works are entitled "Jesus of Nazareth" and "Jesus of Nazareth: Holy Week".
CELEBRATIONS TO BE PRESIDED BY POPE: OCTOBER - NOVEMBER
Vatican City, 21 September 2012 (VIS) - The Office of Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff today published the calendar of celebrations to be presided by the Holy Father in the months of October and November:
OCTOBER
- Thursday 4: Pastoral visit to Loreto, Italy.
- Sunday 7: Twenty-seventh Sunday in Ordinary Time. At 9.30 a.m. Mass in St. Peter's Square for the opening of the Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, and the proclamation of St. John of Avila and St. Hildegard of Bingen as Doctors of the Universal Church.
- Thursday 11: At 9.30 a.m. Mass in St. Peter's Square for the opening of the Year of Faith.
- Sunday 21. Twenty-ninth Sunday in Ordinary Time. At 9.30 a.m. in St. Peter's Square, canonisation of the following Blesseds: Jacques Berthieu, Pedro Calungsod, Giovanni Battista Piamarta, Maria del Carmen (nee Maria Salles y Barangueras), Maria Anna Cope (nee Barbara), Kateri Tekakwitha and Anna Schaffer.
- Sunday 28: At 9.30 a.m. Mass in the Vatican Basilica for the conclusion of the Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops.
NOVEMBER
- Friday 2: All Souls Day. At 6 p.m. in the Vatican Grottoes, a moment of prayer for deceased Pontiffs.
- Saturday 3: At 11.30 a.m. Mass at the altar of the Cathedra in the Vatican Basilica for cardinals and bishops who died during the course of the year.
AUDIENCES
Vatican City, 21 September 2012 (VIS) - The Holy Father today received in audience:
- Archbishop Henryk Jozef Nowacki, apostolic nuncio to Sweden and Iceland.
- Ten prelates of the Conference of Bishops of France on their "ad limina" visit:
- Archbishop Pierre d'Ornellas of Rennes, accompanied by Auxiliary Bishop Nicolas Souchu.
- Bishop Emmanuel Delmas of Angers.
- Bishop Thierry Scherrer of Laval.
- Bishop Yves Le Saux of Le Mans.
- Bishop Alain Castet of Lucon.
- Bishop Jean-Paul James of Nantes.
- Bishop Jean-Marie Le Vert of Quimper, Cornouailles.
- Bishop Denis Moutel of Saint-Brieuc.
- Bishop Raymond Centene of Vannes.
- Archbishop Gerhard Ludwig Muller, prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.
OTHER PONTIFICAL ACTS
Vatican City, 21 September 2012 (VIS) - The Holy Father:
- Appointed as consultors of the Commission for Religious Relations with Muslims within the Pontifical Council for Inter-religious Dialogue: Fr. Cornelius Afebu Omonokhua, director of the Department for Inter-religious Dialogue of the Catholic Secretariat of Nigeria; Fr. Amir Jaje O.P., secretary of the Episcopal Commission for Inter-religious Dialogue of the Assembly of Catholic Bishops of Iraq; Fr. Felix Korner S.J., professor of the theology of religions at the Pontifical Gregorian University; Rotraud Wielandt, professor of Islamic studies at the University of Bamberg, Germany; Ian Netton, vice director of Arab and Islamic studies at the University of Exeter and professor of Islamic studies at Sharjah, United Arab Emirates, and Romana Bashir, head of the Christian Study Centre in Rawalpindi, Pakistan.
- Appointed Bishop Kevin W. Vann of Fort Worth, U.S.A., as bishop of Orange in California (area 2,025, population 3,037,000, Catholics 1,291,000, priests 269, permanent deacons 96, religious 412), U.S.A. He succeeds Bishop Tod D. Brown, whose resignation from the pastoral care of the same diocese the Holy Father accepted, upon having reached the age limit.
- Accepted the resignation from the pastoral care of the diocese of Rochester, U.S.A., presented by Bishop Matthew H. Clark, upon having reached the age limit.

NOVENA : FEAST OF THE ANGELS - ST. MICHAEL - GABRIEL - RAPHAEL


September 29th is the Feast of the Archangels. Here are three novenas to the archangels St. Michael, St. Gabriel, and St. Raphael.


Novena to St. Michael the Archangel
Novena Dates September 21 - 29, Feast Day September 29

St. Michael the Archangel, loyal champion of God and His people, I turn to you with confidence and seek your powerful intercession. For the love of God, Who made you so glorious in grace and power, and for the love of the Mother of Jesus, the Queen of the Angels, be pleased to hear my prayer. You know the value on my soul in the eyes of God. May no stain of evil ever disfigure its beauty. Help me to conquer the evil spirit who tempts me. I desire to imitate your loyalty to God and Holy Mother Church and your great love for God and people. And since you are God's messenger for the care of his people, I entrust to you this special request: (Mention your request).

St. Michael, since you are, by the Will of the Creator, the powerful intercessor of Christians, I have great confidence in your prayers. I earnestly trust that if it is God's holy Will, my petition will be granted.

Pray for me, St. Michael, and also for those I love. Protect us in all dangers of body and soul. Help us in our daily needs. Through your powerful intercession, may we live a holy life, die a happy death, and reach heaven where we may praise and love God with you forever. Amen.


Novena to St. Gabriel the Archangel
Novena Dates September 21 - 29, Feast Day September 29

St. Gabriel the Archangel, I venerate you as the "Angel of the Incarnation," because God has specially appointed you to bear the messages concerning the God-Man to Daniel, Zechariah, and the Blessed Virgin Mary. Give me a tender and devoted Mother, more like your own.

I venerate you also as the "strength from God," because you are the giver of God's strength, consoler and comforter chosen to strengthen God's faithful and to teach them important truths. I ask for the grace of a special power of the will to strive for holiness of life. Steady my resolutions, renew my courage, comfort and console me in the problems, trials, and sufferings of daily living, as you consoled our Savior in His agony and Mary in her sorrows and Joseph in his trials. I put my confidence in you.

St. Gabriel, I ask you especially for this favor: (Mention your request). Through your earnest love for the Son of God-Made-Man and for His blessed Mother, I beg of you, intercede for me that my request may be granted, if it be God's holy Will.

Pray for us, St. Gabriel the Archangel. That we may be made worthy of the promises of Christ.

Let us Pray. Almighty and ever-living God, since You chose the Archangel Gabriel from among all the Angels to announce the mystery of Your Son's Incarnation, mercifully grant that we who honor him on earth may feel the benefit of his patronage in heaven. You live and reign for ever. Amen.



Novena to St. Raphael the Archangel
Novena Dates September 21 - 29, Feast Day September 29

Holy Archangel Raphael, standing so close to the throne of God and offering Him our prayers, I venerate you as God's special Friend and Messenger. I choose you as my Patron and wish to love and obey you as young Tobiah did. I consecrate to you my body and soul,all my work, and my whole life. I want you to be my Guide and Counselor in all the dangerous and difficult problems and decisions of my life.

Remember, dearest, St. Raphael, that the grace of God preserved you with the good Angels in heaven when the proud ones were cast into hell. I entreat you, therefore, to help me in my struggle against the world, the spirit of impurity, and the devil. Defend me from all dangers and every occasion of sin. Direct me always in the way of peace, safety, and salvation. Offer my prayers to God as you offered those of Tobiah, so that through your intercession I may obtain the graces necessary for the salvation of my soul. I ask you to pray that God grant me this favor if it be His holy Will: (Mention your request).

St. Raphael, help me to love and serve my God faithfully, to die in His grace, and finally to merit to join you in seeing and praising God forever in heaven. Amen.

AUSTRALIA : DOGS GIVE HOMELESS SUPPORT

Catholic Communications, Sydney Archdiocese,
21 Sep 2012


Dogs provide emotional support, affection and love
After almost a year in operation, Camperdown's life-changing Common Ground Project, the mixed tenancy community that provides affordable, safe and permanent housing for some of the city's chronically homeless men and women, has proven an outstanding success.
Based on a New York concept to tackle long-term chronic homelessness, Camperdown's $32 million purpose-built six-storey block of 104 units has enabled 52 of those who have suffered long-term homelessness to begin new lives.
Living side by side with lower income earners, the formerly homeless men and women have not only become part of a small and vibrant community but have ready access to support services on the ground floor of the block which range from health to life skills training, financial management, drug and alcohol counselling as well as help with finding employment.
"The project has been a fantastic success," says Felicity Reynolds, CEO of the Mercy Foundation which has been closely involved with the Common Ground initiative and began advocating for the project back in 2008.

Dogs not permitted in shelters
Working with Housing NSW, Mission Australia Housing, both the state and federal governments, NGOs and private organisations to help ensure the project got off the ground, the Mercy Foundation was also instrumental in the decision that Sydney's first Common Ground community be "pet friendly."
"The affection, loyalty and companionship of a dog or a cat offers great comfort, particularly to people who are vulnerable and living on the margins," Felicity says, pointing out that for many homeless men and women their pet is not only their constant companion but their best and frequently only friend.
"The city's homeless hostels don't admit pets so that no matter how bleak the weather, many homeless people will refuse to seek shelter rather than be separated from their beloved pet," she says.

Felicity Reynolds, CEO of the Mercy Foundation
Felicity, who is also Chair of the Australian Common Ground Alliance, says there are equally limited options for the poor. But the Mercy Foundation along with several other organisations and individuals are working to change this. The RSPCA with its Living Ruff program along with NSW's Safe Beds for Pets are among a number of new initiatives with the Mercy Foundation continuing its advocacy to allow homeless people to receive services without being separated from their pets.
Along with the Common Ground project at Camperdown permitting tenants to keep pets, the Wentworth Community Housing project at Penrith, which offers subsidised accommodation to chronically homeless men and women, also allows pets.
Established by the North Sydney Sisters of Mercy in 1990, the Mercy Foundation tackles social issues that impact society's vulnerable and disadvantaged, and for the past five years has directed its focus to homelessness, particularly to the city's chronically homeless men and women.
Just as pets play an important role in the emotional welfare and health of the aged, the lonely, the mentally ill and socially excluded, they can play a vital role helping turn the lives of homeless people around as well as bring hope and comfort to those struggling on limited incomes.

Each year volunteers give free health checks to pets for those on low incomes
But Felicity doesn't just talk the talk and last weekend saw her yet again volunteering at Surry Hills fifth annual Northcott Pet Day where pets of tenants at the public housing estate and inner city locals bring their cats and dogs along for free micro-chipping, worming, weighing and veterinary health checks.
"Vet services can be out of the reach of many people so this is a wonderful and important initiative," she says.
A joint project of the City of Sydney, Surry Hills Public Tenants Association, Jennie Churchill and her staff at the Crookwell Veterinary Hospital, the Faculty of Veterinary Science at the University of Sydney, along with volunteer vets, vet students and helpers from all walks of life, spent last Saturday 15 September giving their time and expertise in a day-long celebration of people and pets.
More than 220 pets received health checks and many registered for the discounted de-sexing of their animal over the next few weeks. Each person who brought their pet also received products to keep their animals free of fleas.

Vet students overseen by volunteer vets took part in last weekend's Northcott Pet Day
"The day is all about pets and community and is always a lot of fun," says Felicity.
To find out more about the Mercy Foundation and its work to end chronic homelessness and on other important social justice issues see www.mercyfoundation.com.au
SHARED FROM ARCHDIOCESE OF SYDNEY

AFRICA : ANGOLA : NEW HOME FOR POOR CHILDREN

Agenzia Fides REPORT - A reception center for street children was recently inaugurated in Luanda, Angola. The house, which runs as a center both during the day and night is dedicated to St. Kizito, a Ugandan boy who was killed at the age of 14. It is a cozy, colorful and clean place, as pointed out with pride by the young children who live there in a statement released by Ans. In the large courtyard there is running water, toilets and a well-equipped kitchen.
There are currently 20 children aged between 10 to 15 who in small steps face the difficult transition from street life to the choice of a new path, education and re-appropriation of their dignity. It is a project of international cooperation in which Salesians, VIS volunteers and public institutions work together. (AP) (Agenzia Fides 20/09/2012)

ASIA : INDONESIA : EMBASSEY CLOSURES DUE TO FILM PROTESTS

UCAN REPORT:
US, France close missions for the day in case of protests
RYAN DAGUR
Catholic Church News Image of Anger forces embassy shutdowns
Indonesians protest against the anti-Islam movie Innocence of Muslims (Ryan Dagur)
The United States embassy, as well as all other US diplomatic missions across the country, was closed today in anticipation of further protests against an anti-Muslim film that has sparked anger around the world.
The French embassy was also closed following the publication this week of cartoons depicting the Prophet Muhammad in a satirical magazine.
Both countries feared that protesters, angry at the film Innocence of Muslims and the cartoons published in Charlie Hebdo magazine, could become more agitated and violent today following Friday prayers.
According to US Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, the decision was made in consultation with the Indonesian government.
“We want to be sure that law enforcement in Indonesia has the ability to do what it needs to do to make sure there is no disruption of civil order and security,” the Australia Network News quoted her as saying yesterday.
“So we are cooperating completely and we’re very grateful for the strong leadership provided by Indonesia,” she added.
Water cannon and around 3,000 policemen were deployed outside the US embassy in Jakarta yesterday.
According to Central Jakarta Police chief Angesta Romano Yoyol, only one organization had informed police of their intention to protest in front of the embassy.
“We don’t know yet how many organizations or people will show up. The only one we know of so far is the Islamic Students Association,” he told reporters.
The offending film directed by Nakoula Basseley Nakoula portrays the Prophet Mohammed as an immoral sexual deviant.
Several protests against the film, the trailer for which was posted on video-sharing website YouTube, have already taken place across the country.
SHARED FROM UCAN NEWS

EUROPE : ARCHBISHOP ON MARRIAGE COUNSELLING TO ALL

CATHOLIC HERALD REPORT:
By Ed West
Archbishop Nichols issued a statement after it emerged that Marriage Care offered counselling to same-sex couples (Photo: Mazur)
Archbishop Nichols issued a statement after it emerged that Marriage Care offered counselling to same-sex couples (Photo: Mazur)
The Archbishop of Westminster has warned Marriage Care that it must conform to Catholic teaching after it emerged that the charity is offering marriage preparation services to same-sex couples.
The charity, which receives money from the Catholic Church, states: “Our counselling service is open to and welcomes everybody over the age of 16, married or not, straight or not.” It also offers marriage preparation and “welcome all couples considering a committed relationship such as marriage”.
Chief executive Terry Prendergast has previously said that the group offers “focused marriage preparation” for same-sex couples.
But, the Catholic Church is opposed to same-sex marriage and Archbishop Vincent Nichols earlier this year issued a letter opposing plans to change its definition of marriage.
A spokesman for Archbishop Vincent Nichols, president of Marriage Care, said his role was exercised “solely on the basis that the charitable objects… are to provide relationship counselling, marriage preparation and relationship education services to ‘promote and support marriage and family life in accordance with the Church’s vision of marriage as a vocation of life and love’.”
He added: “It is the legal and fiduciary responsibility of the directors of the company to ensure that the charitable objects of Catholic Marriage Care Limited are observed and fulfilled. The provision of services in accordance with the teaching of the Catholic Church is also a requirement for Catholic Marriage Care Limited to maintain its continued use of the title Catholic within its designation and to retain the patronage of one of the Catholic Bishops of England and Wales.”
The charity, which was started as a marriage counseling service for Catholic couples, now receives almost £500,000 a year from the state, accounting for the majority of its income, with its website stating that it has a “broadly Christian ethos, by which we mean that we acknowledge the value and uniqueness of every human being regardless of gender, age, race, creed or sexual orientation”. It received more than £63,000 from the Catholic Church last year.
It is currently the second largest marriage counselling service in England and Wales. Mr Prendergast has previously said that children are not harmed by being raised by same-sex parents.
As The Catholic Herald went to press he was unavailable for comment.
SHARED FROM CATHOLIC HERALD

TODAY'S MASS ONLINE : FRIDAY SEPT. 21, 2012

Matthew 9: 9 - 13
9 As Jesus passed on from there, he saw a man called Matthew sitting at the tax office; and he said to him, "Follow me." And he rose and followed him.
10 And as he sat at table in the house, behold, many tax collectors and sinners came and sat down with Jesus and his disciples.
11 And when the Pharisees saw this, they said to his disciples, "Why does your teacher eat with tax collectors and sinners?"
12 But when he heard it, he said, "Those who are well have no need of a physician, but those who are sick.
13 Go and learn what this means, `I desire mercy, and not sacrifice.' For I came not to call the righteous, but sinners."

TODAY'S SAINT: SEPT. 21: ST. MATTHEW, APOSTLE



St. Matthew
APOSTLE
Feast: September 21
Information:
Feast Day:
September 21
Died:
January 24, near Hierapolis or Ethiopia
Patron of:
accountants, bankers, bookkeepers, customs officers, financial officers, guards, money managers, security forces, security guards, stock brokers, tax collectors

Apostle and evangelist. The name Matthew is derived from the Hebrew Mattija, being shortened to Mattai in post-Biblical Hebrew. In Greek it is sometimes spelled Maththaios, B D, and sometimes Matthaios, CEKL, but grammarians do not agree as to which of the two spellings is the original. Matthew is spoken of five times in the New Testament; first in Matt., ix, 9, when called by Jesus to follow Him, and then four times in the list of the Apostles, where he is mentioned in the seventh (Luke, vi, 15, and Mark, iii, 18), and again in the eighth place (Matt., x, 3, and Acts, i, 13). The man designated in Matt., ix, 9, as "sitting in the custom house", and "named Matthew" is the same as Levi, recorded in Mark, ii, 14, and Luke, v, 27, as "sitting at the receipt of custom". The account in the three Synoptics is identical, the vocation of Matthew-Levi being alluded to in the same terms. Hence Levi was the original name of the man who was subsequently called Matthew; the Maththaios legomenos of Matt., ix, 9, would indicate this. The fact of one man having two names is of frequent occurrence among the Jews. It is true that the same person usually bears a Hebrew name such as "Shaoul" and a Greek name, Paulos. However, we have also examples of individuals with two Hebrew names as, for instance, Joseph-Caiaphas, Simon-Cephas, etc. It is probable that Mattija, "gift of Iaveh", was the name conferred upon the tax-gatherer by Jesus Christ when He called him to the Apostolate, and by it he was thenceforth known among his Christian brethren, Levi being his original name. Matthew, the son of Alpheus (Mark, ii, 14) was a Galilean, although Eusebius informs us that he was a Syrian. As tax-gatherer at Capharnaum, he collected custom duties for Herod Antipas, and, although a Jew, was despised by the Pharisees, who hated all publicans. When summoned by Jesus, Matthew arose and followed Him and tendered Him a feast in his house, where tax-gatherers and sinners sat at table with Christ and His disciples. This drew forth a protest from the Pharisees whom Jesus rebuked in these consoling words: "I came not to call the just, but sinners". No further allusion is made to Matthew in the Gospels, except in the list of the Apostles. As a disciple and an Apostle he thenceforth followed Christ, accompanying Him up to the time of His Passion and, in Galilee, was one of the witnesses of His Resurrection. He was also amongst the Apostles who were present at the Ascension, and afterwards withdrew to an upper chamber, in Jerusalem, praying in union with Mary, the Mother of Jesus, and with his brethren (Acts, i, 10 and 14).
Of Matthew's subsequent career we have only inaccurate or legendary data. St. Irenæus tells us that Matthew preached the Gospel among the Hebrews, St. Clement of Alexandria claiming that he did this for fifteen years, and Eusebius maintains that, before going into other countries, he gave them his Gospel in the mother tongue. Ancient writers are not as one as to the countries evangelized by Matthew, but almost all mention Ethiopia to the south of the Caspian Sea (not Ethiopia in Africa), and some Persia and the kingdom of the Parthians, Macedonia, and Syria. According to Heracleon, who is quoted by Clement of Alexandria, Matthew did not die a martyr, but this opinion conflicts with all other ancient testimony. Let us add, however, that the account of his martyrdom in the apocryphal Greek writings entitled "Martyrium S. Matthæi in Ponto" and published by Bonnet, "Acta apostolorum apocrypha" (Leipzig, 1898), is absolutely devoid of historic value. Lipsius holds that this "Martyrium S. Matthæi", which contains traces of Gnosticism, must have been published in the third century. There is a disagreement as to the place of St. Matthew's martyrdom and the kind of torture inflicted on him, therefore it is not known whether he was burned, stoned, or beheaded. The Roman Martyrology simply says: "S. Matthæi, qui in Æthiopia prædicans martyrium passus est". Various writings that are now considered apocryphal, have been attributed to St. Matthew. In the "Evangelia apocrypha" (Leipzig, 1876), Tischendorf reproduced a Latin document entitled: "De Ortu beatæ Mariæ et infantia Salvatoris", supposedly written in Hebrew by St. Matthew the Evangelist, and translated into Latin by Jerome, the priest. It is an abridged adaptation of the "Protoevangelium" of St. James, which was a Greek apocryphal of the second century. This pseudo-Matthew dates from the middle or the end of the sixth century. The Latin Church celebrates the feast of St. Matthew on 21 September, and the Greek Church on 16 November. St. Matthew is represented under the symbol of a winged man, carrying in his hand a lance as a characteristic emblem.




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