Thursday, November 10, 2011









VATICAN CITY, 10 NOV 2011 (VIS) - "In our troubled times, dialogue between different religions is becoming ever more important in the generation of an atmosphere of mutual understanding and respect that can lead to friendship and solid trust in each other. This is pressing for the religious leaders of the Holy Land who, while living in a place full of memories sacred to our traditions, are tested daily by the difficulties of living together in harmony". (RADIO VATICANA IMAGE)

With these words Benedict XVI greeted members of the Israeli Religious Council, whom he received in audience this morning in the Vatican. The Council brings together leaders of the main religious communities in Israel, as well as representatives from other institutions and organisations. This was the first meeting of its kind in the history of relations between the Israel and the Holy See.

"As I remarked in my recent meeting with religious leaders at Assisi", said the Pope continuing his English-language remarks, "today we find ourselves confronted by two kinds of violence: on the one hand, the use of violence in the name of religion and, on the other, the violence that is the consequence of the denial of God which often characterises life in modern society. In this situation, as religious leaders we are called to reaffirm that the rightly lived relationship of man to God is a force for peace. This is a truth that must become ever more visible in the way in which we live with each other on a daily basis. Hence, I wish to encourage you to foster a climate of trust and dialogue among the leaders and members of all the religious traditions present in the Holy Land.

"We share a grave responsibility to educate the members of our respective religious communities", he added, "with a view to nurturing a deeper understanding of each other and developing an openness towards cooperation with people of religious traditions other than our own. ... Justice, together with truth, love and freedom, is a fundamental requirement for lasting and secure peace in the world. Movement towards reconciliation requires courage and vision, as well as the trust that it is God Himself Who will show us the way. We cannot achieve our goals if God does not give us the strength to do so.

"When I visited Jerusalem in May 2009, I stood in front of the Western Wall and, in my written prayer placed between the stones of the Wall, I asked God for peace in the Holy Land. I wrote: 'God of all ages, on my visit to Jerusalem, the City of Peace, spiritual home to Jews, Christians and Muslims alike, I bring before You the joys, the hopes and the inspirations, the trials, the suffering and the pain of all Your people throughout the world. God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, hear the cry of the afflicted, the fearful, the bereft; send Your peace upon this Holy Land, upon theMiddle East, upon the entire human family; stir the hearts of all who call upon Your name to walk humbly in the path of justice and compassion. 'The Lord is good to those who wait for Him, to the soul that seeks Him!'

"May the Lord hear my prayer for Jerusalem today and fill your hearts with joy during your visit toRome. May He hear the prayer of all men and women who ask him for the peace of Jerusalem. Indeed, let us never cease praying for the peace of the Holy Land, with confidence in God Who Himself is our peace and consolation".

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VATICAN CITY, 10 NOV 2011 (VIS) - Made public this morning was a Message from the Holy Father to Archbishop Antonio Arregui Yarza of Guayaquil and president of the Ecuadorian Episcopal Conference, for the second Ecuadorian National Family Congress, which began yesterday and is due to close on 12 November. The congress, which has as its theme "The Ecuadorian Family on Mission: work and rest at the service of the individual and of the common good" is taking place in the context of the Continental Mission promoted by the Episcopate of Latin America and the Caribbean, and in preparation for the seventh World Meeting of Families, due to be held in Milan, Italy, in June 2012.

"The family", writes Benedict XVI, "born of a covenant of love and of complete and sincere commitment between a man and woman in marriage, is not a private entity enclosed in itself. By its vocation it makes a wonderful and decisive contribution to the common good of society and the mission of the Church. Society is not a mere aggregation of individuals, but the outcome of relationships between people - husband and wife, parents and children, siblings - the foundation of which is to be found in family life and in the bonds of affection deriving therefrom. Each family, through its children, gives society its own experience of human richness. We can well say that the health and value of relationships within a society depend upon the health and value of relationships within families".

"Work and rest are particularly associated with the life of families: they affect the choices families make, influence relations between spouses and among parents and children, and affect the ties of families with society and with the Church".

"Through work man comes to see himself as a participant in God's plan of creation. This is why unemployment or precarious work undermine man's dignity, creating not just situations of injustice and poverty which frequently degenerate into desperation, criminality and violence, but also crises of identity. It is, then, vital that serious, effective and judicious measures be taken on all sides, accompanied by an indissoluble and forthright will to find ways to ensure that everyone has access to dignified, stable and well paid employment, through which they may seek sanctity and participate actively in the development of society, combining intense and responsible labour with adequate time for a rich, fruitful and harmonious family life".

"A serene and constructive home environment, with its duties and its affections, is the first school of work and the best place in which a person may discover his potential, nurture his ambitions, and foster his most noble aspirations. Moreover, family life teaches us to overcome selfishness, to nourish solidarity, not to disdain sacrifice for another's happiness, to value what is good and true, and to apply ourselves with conviction and generosity in the name of our joint wellbeing and reciprocal good, showing responsibility towards ourselves, others and the environment".

"Rest makes our time more human, opening it to the encounter with God, with others and with nature. For this reason families need to rediscover the genuine significance of rest, and especially of Sunday, the Day of God and man. In the Sunday celebration of the Eucharist, families experience the real presence of the Risen Lord in the here and now, they receive new life, welcome the gift of the Spirit, increase their love for the Church, listen to the Divine Word, share the Eucharistic bread and open to fraternal love".

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VATICAN CITY, 10 NOV 2011 (VIS) - Replying to questions raised by journalists, Holy See Press Director Fr. Federico Lombardi S.J. has announced that Benedict XVI is studying the possibility of travelling to Cuba and Mexico in the spring of 2012. "In recent days", Fr. Lombardi said, "the nuncios in Mexico and Cuba have been instructed to inform the highest civil and religious authorities that the Pope is examining concrete plans to visit those States, in response to invitations he has received".

The plans will be finalised over coming weeks, when "the Pope will take his final decision, which he will communicate in the way and time he sees most fit". The trip is due to take place in spring 2012, therefore "the times for a final decision on the programme and for the preparations are rather short".

"It is well known that expectations among people in Mexico are high", said Fr. Lombardi, explaining the reasons for the trip. "The Pope is aware of this and is happy to be able to respond. He has been to Brazil but the Spanish speaking countries of Latin America, of which Mexico has the largest population, wished for a visit of their own".

"Cuba also has great desire to see the Pope, having never forgotten the historic visit of John Paul II. The Church and the people are experiencing a particularly important moment in their history, and the Pope's visit will be a great encouragement, particularly in view of the fourth centenary of the discovery of the image of 'Nuestra Senora de la Caridad del Cobre'".


"It is sufficient to glance at a map to see that Mexico and Cuba lie in the same direction with respect toRome, therefore it would seem more logical to visit these two countries in a single, though necessarily long, journey. Any trip would not have many stages, but just a few of great symbolic and pastoral importance. Another factor to be taken into account is that of the altitude, which would make it unadvisable for the Holy Father to visit Mexico City. One of the questions to be examined immediately, then, is that of better alternatives.

"Following the Aparecida Conference which the Pope attended four years ago,Latin America is committed to a great continental mission of evangelisation. The Pope will have the opportunity to encourage the entire Church in this great task, also in view of preparations for the celebration of the Year of Faith".

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VATICAN CITY, 10 NOV 2011 (VIS) - The Holy Father today received in audience:

- Cardinal Agostino Vallini, vicar general of His Holiness for the diocese of Rome.

- Cardinal Raymundo Damasceno Assis, archbishop of Aparecida, Brazil, president of the National Conference of Bishops of Brazil; Archbishop Jose Belisario da Silva O.F.M. of Sao Luis do Maranhao, vice president, and Bishop Leonardo Ulrich Steiner O.F.M., prelate of Sao Felix, secretary general.

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VATICAN CITY, 10 NOV 2011 (VIS) - The Holy Father appointed:

- Archbishop Francisco Montecillo Padilla, apostolic nuncio to Papua New Guineaand the Solomon Islands, as apostolic nuncio to Tanzania.

- As members of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See: Cardinal Attilio Nicora, president of the Financial Information Authority, and Cardinal Velasio De Paolis C.S., president emeritus of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See.



This movie by evangelist Ray Comfort of
and was released in September 2011. Since that time it has received great popularity in the media world wide. It has been viewed on the Youtube channel over 1 million times. It can be viewed on this link for free:
It has changed the minds of thousands with regard to the Abortion issue. The movie is being distributed across the country to schools and universities. This is a powerful, engaging, real-life discussion of the reality of Abortion. The movie was produced by a Jewish man from New Zealand. Ray Comfort is a very faithful and prayerful man, who courageously produced this film for life.


Catholic Communications, Sydney Archdiocese REPORT
9 Nov 2011

Youth ministers need quality training as well as
enthusiasm, initiative and spirit

In a groundbreaking first, the Australia Catholic Bishops Conference (ACBC) in partnership with the Broken Bay Institute is offering three scholarships to young people which will provide them a chance to study for a Certificate in Catholic Youth and Campus Ministry.

Open to those who already have been awarded their degree in nursing, education, the arts or any other discipline, the BBI's four unit postgraduate course concentrates on deepening participants' theological knowledge and faith formation.

Available online as well as on campus, the certificate course is aimed at emerging as well as experienced youth and campus ministers and combines academic study with a hands-on approach to the evangelisation and formation of young people.

"It is very exciting to be able offer these scholarships and we invite teachers, youth professionals, youth ministers and youth leaders across the country to apply," says Malcolm Hart, Senior Youth Ministry Projects Officer of the ACBC's Bishop Commission for Pastoral Life.

With a combined value of more than $10,000, one of the scholarships covers the $5140 tuition fees and costs for the entire course. The other two scholarships offered are each valued at $2,570 and provide part payment for the postgraduate certificate course which can be undertaken on a full or part time basis. Full time students complete the course over a 12 month period while part timers carry out their studies over two years.

In addition, the Bishop Commission for Pastoral Life is offering free registration to each of those chosen for the scholarships to attend next year's Australian Catholic Youth Ministry Convention.

World Youth Day in Sydney and Madrid captured
hearts of young people and youth ministers

"World Youth Day in Sydney, and later Madrid, and subsequent youth ministry programs in Australia have captured the hearts of young people and youth ministers," Malcolm says. But despite this, retaining those working in youth and campus ministry has proved difficult.

One of the reasons for this is that those involved in youth ministry were not always able to see longevity in their chosen path, or a long term career pathway. Having nationally recognised tertiary level study and professional accreditation from BBI with its University of Newcastle affiliation addresses this issue and opens doors to a wide variety of areas.

"By encouraging peak training and formation through this course, these young people become embedded in the broader church ministry and eventually, go on into other roles within the church such as adult faith education or teaching positions," he says.

Dr Gerard Goldman, Director of BBI says the development of the course has been part of a strategic five year plan to be of service to the Church in what he describes as "the important area of youth and campus ministry."

"Diocesan ministries alerted us to the problem of retaining those working in this and the need for solid theological formation," he says pointing out that "despite the great good will, enormous initiative and spirit of many who work in youth ministries, there is a big turnover due to the lack of serious training and strong theological grounding."

Dr Goldman says many currently leave youth ministries after finding themselves unable to answer some of the more difficult questions about faith. "They are thrown by this and without the qualifications and training to deal with these questions, give up and leave."

Malcolm Hart, Senior Youth
Ministry Projects Officer

The course, which has been offered by the BBI for the past two years, is aimed at changing this by way of retaining the energy, initiative and great enthusiasm of those working with young people by providing them with the skills, training and theological background.

The certificate in Youth and Campus Ministry offered by BBI, can be expanded by a further four units leading to a nationally-recognised Masters Degree in Pastoral Ministry.

"BBI has been committed to supporting youth ministry in Australia for the past 10 years by providing accessible and comprehensive programs," he says.

Since 2006, BBI has hosted a "Builders and Dreamers" youth ministry symposium, offering units of study around the WYD experiences of 2005, 2006 and 2011, and will shortly expand this to include WYD in Rio in 2013.

Now the Institute is also offering a postgraduate certificate in Youth and Campus Ministry as well.

Applications for the one of the three scholarships being offered by BBI and the Bishop Commission for Pastoral Life close on 2 December. Details of the scholarships and how to apply can be found by logging on to or by emailing Malcolm Hart,


CATHOLIC HERALD REPORT: The Association for Latin Liturgy holds annual meeting at parish of St Mary Magdalen, Brighton

By STAFF REPORTER on Thursday, 10 November 2011

Liturgy association holds its AGM

Solemn Mass is celebrated at St Mary Magdalen, Brighton Photo: Christopher Francis

CATHOLIC HERALD REPORT: The Association for Latin Liturgy enjoyed one of its most successful Annual General Meetings ever on Saturday October 15.
Members were the guests of the parish of St Mary Magdalen, Brighton, and of its parish priest, Fr Ray Blake.

At midday Solemn Mass for the feast of St Teresa, Doctor of the Church, was celebrated by Mgr Andrew Burnham of the Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham, assisted by Deacon James Bradley, also of the Ordinariate, and Brother Anselm Carpenter of Farnborough Abbey.

The Mass was celebrated in the Novus Ordo, as is always the rule for the association’s Masses, using the ad orientem option, with the Roman Canon, including all the names of the saints.

Schola Scholastica, directed by Clare Bowskill, sang the plainsong proper Dilexisti justitiam and led the congregation in Mass XV Dominator Deus, with Credo III. At the Offertory they sang the Salve Mater Misericordiae and during Communion a three-part setting of Panis Angelicus by Giuseppe Baini (1775-1844).

In his homily, reflecting on the life of the great saint whose day we were celebrating, Mgr Burnham spoke of the great importance, indeed the centrality, of the interior spiritual life.

After lunch Mgr Burnham gave the talk on “the Liturgical Patrimony of the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham and the Reform of the Reform”.

The day continued with First Vespers of Sunday when the officiant was Deacon James Bradley and which was again magnificently led by the Schola and concluded with a beautiful celebration of Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament led by Fr William Young.


UCAN REPORT: Streaming of services at home of Black Nazerene aimed at serving overseas workers
Michael Diaz, Manila
November 10, 2011
Catholic Church News Image of Manila church Masses go online
Inside Quiapo Church

Masses at Quiapo Church, home of the Black Nazarene and the country’s main pilgrimage site, are now being streamed live on the Internet.

Monsignor Clemente Ignacio, rector of the Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene, the church’s official name, today said the project is currently undergoing “test broadcasts” and is doing well.

“We primarily intend to reach out to OFWs [overseas Filipino workers] and devotees of the Black Nazarene,” Msgr. Ignacio said. “It is not a substitute for attending Mass. Catholics still have to go to Mass in their churches.”

“Live streaming came about as a result of requests from OFWs who are unable to attend Mass. At least it can help them nourish their faith,” he said.

Several Masses are held each day at Quiapo Church but only the liturgical services on Fridays and Sundays are being streamed live.

Friday is Quiapo Day when thousands of Catholics troop to the minor basilica to pray for miracles from the Black Nazarene.

The Internet service can be accessed on the parish’swebsite.

The service is just one example where the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of the Philippines is trying to utilizing the Internet for evangelization.

Another project that aroused public interest attention was “Visita Iglesia Online” which seeks to help Filipinos observe Catholic Lenten rites, especially those in non-Catholic countries.

Some bishops and priests are also writing blogs to spread the Scripture.


Agenzia Fides REPORT - "The Department of Pediatrics at Fatebenefratelli Hospital in Tanguiéta, Benin, is literally bursting. In the past year, due to the worsening economic crisis that has hit the Country, the children hospitalized for malnutrition has doubled from 3000 to 6000". In a statement sent to Agenzia Fides, Fra Luca Beato, Vice President of UTA (United for Tanguiéta and Afagnan), Onlus that has supported the solidarity initiatives of the African Fatebenefratelli hospital in Benin and Togo for over 15 years, launches the alarm. The increasingly extreme poverty of this country makes food resources more scarce with serious repercussions in terms of nutrition, especially on children. "20% of these children - says Fra Fiorenzo Priuli, Director of the Hospital in Tanguiéta – arrive in the pediatric ward in a state of extreme seriousness, so we need to put them in intensive care to save them from starvation. The structure of Pediatrics - continues Fra Fiorenzo - normally has 80 beds, but the mothers who are about 120/150 accommodate themselves on mats with their children (from one to three). At night, in the adjacent corridor, the personal assistant has difficulty walking among the mats". (AP) (Agenzia Fides 10/11/2011)


St. Leo the Great

Feast: November 10
Feast Day:
November 10
400 at Tuscany, Italy
11 April 461 at Rome, Italy

Place and date of birth unknown; died 10 November, 461. Leo's pontificate, next to that of St. Gregory I, is the most significant and important in Christian antiquity. At a time when the Church was experiencing the greatest obstacles to her progress in consequence of the hastening disintegration of the Western Empire, while the Orient was profoundly agitated over dogmatic controversies, this great pope, with far-seeing sagacity and powerful hand, guided the destiny of the Roman and Universal Church. According to the "Liber Pontificalis" (ed. Mommsen, I, 101 sqq., ed. Duchesne, I, 238 sqq.), Leo was a native of Tuscany and his father's name was Quintianus. Our earliest certain historical information about Leo reveals him a deacon of the Roman Church under Pope Celestine I (422-32). Even during this period he was known outside of Rome, and had some relations with Gaul, since Cassianus in 430 or 431 wrote at Leo's suggestion his work "De Incarnatione Domini contra Nestorium" (Migne, P.L., L, 9 sqq.), prefacing it with a letter of dedication to Leo. About this time Cyril of Alexandria appealed to Rome against the pretensions of Bishop Juvenal of Jerusalem. From an assertion of Leo's in a letter of later date (ep. cxvi, ed. Ballerini, I, 1212; II, 1528), it is not very clear whether Cyril wrote to him in the capacity of Roman deacon, or to Pope Celestine. During the pontificate of Sixtus III (422-40), Leo was sent to Gaul by Emperor Valentinian III to settle a dispute and bring about a reconciliation between Aëtius, the chief military commander of the province, and the chief magistrate, Albinus. This commission is a proof of the great confidence placed in the clever and able deacon by the Imperial Court. Sixtus III died on 19 August, 440, while Leo was in Gaul, and the latter was chosen his successor. Returning to Rome, Leo was consecrated on 29 September of the same year, and governed the Roman Church for the next twenty-one years.
Leo's chief aim was to sustain the unity of the Church. Not long after his elevation to the Chair of Peter, he saw himself compelled to combat energetically the heresies which seriously threatened church unity even in the West. Leo had ascertained through Bishop Septimus of Altinum, that in Aquileia priests, deacons, and clerics, who had been adherents of Pelagius, were admitted to communion without an explicit abjuration of their heresy. The pope sharply censured this procedure, and directed that a provincial synod should be assembled in Aquileia, at which such persons were to be required to abjure Pelagianism publicly and to subscribe to an unequivocal confession of Faith (epp. i and ii). This zealous pastor waged war even more strenuously against Manichæism, inasmuch as its adherents, who had been driven from Africa by the Vandals, had settled in Rome, and had succeeded in establishing a secret Manichæan community there. The pope ordered the faithful to point out these heretics to the priests, and in 443, together with the senators and presbyters, conducted in person an investigation, in the course of which the leaders of the community were examined. In several sermons he emphatically warned the Christians of Rome to be on their guard against this reprehensible heresy, and repeatedly charged them to give information about its followers, their dwellings, acquaintances, and rendezvous (Sermo ix, 4, xvi, 4; xxiv, 4; xxxiv, 4 sq.; xlii, 4 sq.; lxxvi, 6). A number of Manichæans in Rome were converted and admitted to confession; others, who remained obdurate, were in obedience to imperial decrees banished from Rome by the civil magistrates. On 30 January, 444, the pope sent a letter to all the bishops of Italy, to which he appended the documents containing his proceedings against the Manichæans in Rome, and warned them to be on their guard and to take action against the followers of the sect (ep. vii). On 19 June, 445, Emperor Valentinian III issued, doubtless at the pope's instigation, a stern edict in which he established seven punishments for the Manichæans ("Epist. Leonis", ed. Ballerini, I, 626; ep. viii inter Leon. ep). Prosper of Aquitaine states in his "Chronicle" (ad an. 447; "Mon. Germ. hist. Auct. antiquissimi", IX, I, 341 sqq.) that, in consequence of Leo's energetic measures, the Manichæans were also driven out of the provinces, and even Oriental bishops emulated the pope's example in regard to this sect. In Spain the heresy of Priscillianism still survived, and for some time had been attracting fresh adherents. Bishop Turibius of Astorga became cognizant of this, and by extensive journeys collected minute information about the condition of the churches and the spread of Priscillianism. He compiled the errors of the heresy, wrote a refutation of the same, and sent these documents to several African bishops. He also sent a copy to the pope, whereupon the latter sent a lengthy letter to Turibius (ep. xv) in refutation of the errors of the Priscillianists. Leo at the same time ordered that a council of bishops belonging to the neighbouring provinces should be convened to institute a rigid enquiry, with the object of determining whether any of the bishops had become tainted with the poison of this heresy. Should any such be discovered, they were to be excommunicated without hesitation. The pope also addressed a similar letter to the bishops of the Spanish provinces, notifying them that a universal synod of all the chief pastors was to be summoned; if this should be found to be impossible, the bishops of Galicia at least should be assembled. These two synods were in fact held in Spain to deal with the points at issue (Hefele, "Konziliengesch." II, 2nd ed., pp. 306 sqq.).
The greatly disorganized ecclesiastical condition of certain countries, resulting from national migrations, demanded closer bonds between their episcopate and Rome for the better promotion of ecclesiastical life. Leo, with this object in view, determined to make use of the papal vicariate of the bishops of Arles for the province of Gaul for the creation of a centre for the Gallican episcopate in immediate union with Rome. In the beginning his efforts were greatly hampered by his conflict with St. Hilary, then Bishop of Arles. Even earlier, conflicts had arisen relative to the vicariate of the bishops of Arles and its privileges. Hilary made excessive use of his authority over other ecclesiastical provinces, and claimed that all bishops should be consecrated by him, instead of by their own metropolitan. When, for example, the complaint was raised that Bishop Celidonius of Besançon had been consecrated in violation of the canons—the grounds alleged being that he had, as a layman, married a widow, and, as a public officer, had given his consent to a death sentence—Hilary deposed him, and consecrated Importunus as his successor. Celidonius thereupon appealed to the pope and set out in person for Rome. About the same time Hilary, as if the see concerned had been vacant, consecrated another bishop to take the place of a certain Bishop Projectus, who was ill. Projectus recovered, however, and he too laid a complaint at Rome about the action of the Bishop of Arles. Hilary then went himself to Rome to justify his proceedings. The pope assembled a Roman synod (about 445) and, when the complaints brought against Celidonius could not be verified, reinstated the latter in his see. Projectus also received his bishopric again. Hilary returned to Arles before the synod was over; the pope deprived him of jurisdiction over the other Gallic provinces and of metropolitan rights over the province of Vienne, only allowing him to retain his Diocese of Arles.
These decisions were disclosed by Leo in a letter to the bishops of the Province of Vienne (ep. x). At the same time he sent them an edict of Valentinian III of 8 July, 445, in which the pope's measures in regard to St. Hilary were supported, and the primacy of the Bishop of Rome over the whole Church solemnly recognized "Epist. Leonis," ed. Ballerini, I, 642). On his return to his bishopric Hilary sought a reconciliation with the pope. After this there arose no further difficulties between these two saintly men and, after his death in 449, Hilary was declared by Leo as "beatæ memoriæ". To Bishop Ravennius, St. Hilary's successor in the see of Arles, and the bishops of that province, Leo addressed most cordial letters in 449 on the election of the new metropolitan (epp. xl, xli). When Ravennius consecrated a little later a new bishop to take the place of the deceased Bishop of Vaison, the Archbishop of Vienne, who was then in Rome, took exception to this action. The bishops of the province of Arles then wrote a joint letter to the pope, in which they begged him to restore to Ravennius the rights of which his predecessor Hilary had been deprived (ep. lxv inter ep. Leonis). In his reply dated 5 May, 450 (ep. lxvi), Leo acceded to their request. The Archbishop of Vienne was to retain only the suffragan Bishoprics of Valence, Tarentaise, Geneva, and Grenoble; all the other sees in the Province of Vienne were made subject to the Archbishop of Arles, who also became again the mediator between the Holy See and the whole Gallic episcopate. Leo transmitted to Ravennius (ep. lxvii), for communication to the other Gallican bishops, his celebrated letter to Flavian of Constantinople on the Incarnation. Ravennius thereupon convened a synod, at which forty-four chief pastors assembled. In their synodal letter of 451, they affirm that they accept the pope's letter as a symbol of faith (ep. xxix inter ep. Leonis). In his answer Leo speaks further of the condemnation of Nestorius (ep. cii). The Vicariate of Arles for a long time retained the position Leo had accorded it. Another papal vicariate was that of the bishops of Thessalonica, whose jurisdiction extended over Illyria. The special duty of this vicariate was to protect the rights of the Holy See over the district of Eastern Illyria, which belonged to the Eastern Empire. Leo bestowed the vicariate upon Bishop Anastasius of Thessalonica, just as Pope Siricius had formerly entrusted it to Bishop Anysius. The vicar was to consecrate the metropolitans, to assemble in a synod all bishops of the Province of Eastern Illyria, to oversee their administration of their office; but the most important matters were to be submitted to Rome (epp. v, vi, xiii). But Anastasius of Thessalonica used his authority in an arbitrary and despotic manner, so much so that he was severely reproved by Leo, who sent him fuller directions for the exercise of his office (ep. xiv).
In Leo's conception of his duties as supreme pastor, the maintenance of strict ecclesiastical discipline occupied a prominent place. This was particularly important at a time when the continual ravages of the barbarians were introducing disorder into all conditions of life, and the rules of morality were being seriously violated. Leo used his utmost energy in maintining this discipline, insisted on the exact observance of the ecclesiastical precepts, and did not hesitate to rebuke when necessary. Letters (ep. xvii) relative to these and other matters were sent to the different bishops of the Western Empire—e.g., to the bishops of the Italian provinces (epp. iv, xix, clxvi, clxviii), and to those of Sicily, who had tolerated deviations from the Roman Liturgy in the administration of Baptism (ep. xvi), and concerning other matters (ep. xvii). A very important disciplinary decree was sent to bishop Rusticus of Narbonne (ep. clxvii). Owing to the dominion of the Vandals in Latin North Africa, the position of the Church there had become extremely gloomy. Leo sent the Roman priest Potentius thither to inform himself about the exact condition, and to forward a report to Rome. On receiving this Leo sent a letter of detailed instructions to the episcopate of the province about the adjustment of numerous ecclesiastical and disciplinary questions (ep. xii). Leo also sent a letter to Dioscurus of Alexandria on 21 July, 445, urging him to the strict observance of the canons and discipline of the Roman Church (ep. ix). The primacy of the Roman Church was thus manifested under this pope in the most various and distinct ways. But it was especially in his interposition in the confusion of the Christological quarrels, which then so profoundly agitated Eastern Christendom, that Leo most brilliantly revealed himself the wise, learned, and energetic shepherd of the Church (see MONOPHYSITISM). From his first letter on this subject, written to Eutyches on 1 June, 448 (ep. xx), to his last letter written to the new orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria, Timotheus Salophaciolus, on 18 August, 460 (ep. clxxi), we cannot but admire the clear, positive, and systematic manner in which Leo, fortified by the primacy of the Holy See, took part in this difficult entanglement.
Eutyches appealed to the pope after he had been excommunicated by Flavian, Patriarch of Constantinople, on account of his Monophysite views. The pope, after investigating the disputed question, sent his sublime dogmatic letter to Flavian (ep. xxviii), concisely setting forth and confirming the doctrine of the Incarnation, and the union of the Divine and human natures in the one Person of Christ . In 449 the council, which was designated by Leo as the "Robber Synod", was held. Flavian and other powerful prelates of the East appealed to the pope. The latter sent urgent letters to Constantinople, particularly to Emperor Theodosius II and Empress Pulcheria, urging them to convene a general council in order to restore peace to the Church. To the same end he used his influence with the Western emperor, Valentinian III, and his mother Galla Placidia, especially during their visit to Rome in 450. This general council was held in Chalcedon in 451 under Marcian, the successor of Theodosius. It solemnly accepted Leo's dogmatical epistle to Flavian as an expression of the Catholic Faith concerning the Person of Christ. The pope confirmed the decrees of the Council after eliminating the canon, which elevated the Patriarchate of Constantinople, while diminishing the rights of the ancient Oriental patriarchs. On 21 March, 453, Leo issued a circular letter confirming his dogmatic definition (ep. cxiv). Through the mediation of Bishop Julian of Cos, who was at that time the papal ambassador in Constantinople, the pope tried to protect further ecclesiastical interest. in the Orient. He persuaded the new Emperor of Constantinople, Leo I, to remove the heretical and irregular patriarch, Timotheus Ailurus, from the See of Alexandria. A new and orthodox patriarch, Timotheus Salophaciolus, was chosen to fill his place, and received the congratulations of the pope in the last letter which Leo ever sent to the Orient.
In his far-reaching pastoral care of the Universal Church, in the West and in the East, the pope never neglected the domestic interests of the Church at Rome. When Northern Italy had been devastated by Attila, Leo by a personal encounter with the King of the Huns prevented him from marching upon Rome. At the emperor's wish, Leo, accompanied by the Consul Avienus and the Prefect Trigetius, went in 452 to Upper Italy, and met Attila at Mincio in the vicinity of Mantua, obtaining from him the promise that he would withdraw from Italy and negotiate peace with the emperor. The pope also succeeded in obtaining another great favour for the inhabitants of Rome. When in 455 the city was captured by the Vandals under Genseric, although for a fortnight the town had been plundered, Leo's intercession obtained a promise that the city should not be injured and that the lives of the inhabitants should be spared. These incidents show the highmoral authority enjoyed by the pope, manifested even in temporal affairs. Leo was always on terms of intimacy with the Western Imperial Court. In 450 Emperor Valentinian III visited Rome, accompanied by his wife Eudoxia and his mother Galla Placidia. On the feast of Cathedra Petri (22 February), the Imperial family with their brilliant retinue took part in the solemn services at St. Peter's, upon which occasion the pope delivered an impressive sermon. Leo was also active in building and restoring churches. He built a basilica over the grave of Pope Cornelius in the Via Appia. The roof of St. Paul's without the Walls having been destroyed by lightning, he had it replaced, and undertook other improvements in the basilica. He persuaded Empress Galla Placidia, as seen from the inscription, to have executed the great mosaic of the Arch of Triumph, which has survived to our day. Leo also restored St. Peter's on the Vatican. During his pontificate a pious Roman lady, named Demetria, erected on her property on the Via Appia a basilica in honour of St. Stephen, the ruins of which have been excavated.
Leo was no less active in the spiritual elevation of the Roman congregations, and his sermons, of which ninety-six genuine examples have been preserved, are remarkable for their profundity, clearness of diction, and elevated style. The first five of these, which were delivered on the anniversaries of his consecration, manifest his lofty conception of the dignity of his office, as well as his thorough conviction of the primacy of the Bishop of Rome, shown forth in so outspoken and decisive a manner by his whole activity as supreme pastor. Of his letters, which are of great importance for church history, 143 have come down to us: we also possess thirty which were sent to him. The so-called "Sacramentarium Leonianum" is a collection of orations and prefaces of the Mass, prepared in the second half of the sixth century. Leo died on 10 November, 461, and was buried in the vestibule of St. Peter's on the Vatican. In 688 Pope Sergius had his remains transferred to the basilica itself, and a special altar erected over them. They rest today in St. Peter's, beneath the altar specially dedicated to St. Leo. In 1754 Benedict XIV exalted him to the dignity of Doctor of the Church (doctor ecclesiæ). In the Latin Church the feast day of the great pope is held on 11 April, and in the Eastern Church on 18 February.

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