DONATE TO JCE NEWS

Thursday, November 11, 2010

CATHOLIC NEWS WORLD: WED. NOV. 10, 2010


CATHOLIC NEWS WORLD: WED. NOV. 10, 2010: HEADLINES-

VATICAN: POPE: REFLECTIONS ON VISIT TO SPAIN -

ASIA: IRAQ: 3 DEAD AND 26 WOUNDED IN ATTACKS -

EUROPE: SCOTLAND: NEW ORDER OF NUNS PROMOTES LIFE -

AMERICA: USA: CARDINAL GEORGE ASKS OBAMA TO PROTECT IRAQIS -

AFRICA: ANGOLA: BISHOPS' COMMENTS ON 35TH ANNIVERSARY -

AUSTRALIA: RETIRED ANGLICAN BISHOP JOINS CATHOLIC CHURCH-

TODAY'S SAINT: ST. LEO THE GREAT: NOV. 10 -

TODAY'S GOSPEL: NOV. 10: Luke 17: 11 - 19 -





VATICAN: POPE: REFLECTIONS ON VISIT TO SPAIN

POPE RECOLLECTS HIS APOSTOLIC TRIP TO SPAIN VATICAN CITY, 10 NOV 2010 (VIS report) - During his general audience, held this morning in the Paul VI Hall, Benedict XVI reminisced about his recent apostolic trip to the Spanish cities of Santiago de Compostela and Barcelona. "I went there", he said, "to strengthen my brothers and sisters in the faith, and I did so as a witness of the Risen Christ and a sower of the hope that does not disappoint and does not fail". From the beginning of the trip, during the welcome ceremony at Santiago de Compostela, "I was able to experience the affection the people of Spain feel towards Peter's Successor", he said. "In this Holy Year of Compostela, I wished to become a pilgrim, along with the many others who have journeyed to that famous shrine". In the cathedral of Santiago, "where with great emotion I gave the traditional embrace to the saint, I thought how that gesture of welcome and friendship is, in fact, ... a powerful sign of the desire to conform ourselves to the apostolic message. This message, on the one hand, commits us to being faithful custodians of the Good News the Apostles transmitted, without succumbing to the temptation to alter it, diminish it or distort it to other interests while, on the other, it makes each of us tireless announcers of faith in Christ, with the word and witness of our lives in all fields of society". The Holy Father then turned his attention to the reasons that make so many people leave their daily lives to follow the Route of Santiago. "In moments of confusion, of searching, of difficulty, and in the desire to strengthen their faith and live more coherent lives, the pilgrims of Compostela follow a profound itinerary of conversion to Christ Who took the weakness and sins of humanity, the misery of the world, on His own shoulders, and carried them to where evil no longer has any power and where the light of goodness illuminates all things. They are people from all over the world who walk silently, rediscovering the ancient mediaeval and Christen tradition of pilgrimage as they pass through towns and cities permeated by Catholicism". "It is faith in Christ that gives meaning to Compostela, an extraordinary spiritual place which continues to be a landmark for Europe today. ... Openness to the transcendent, and fruitful dialogue between faith and reason, between politics and religion, between economy and ethics, will enable us to build a Europe which, faithful to its vital Christian roots, can fully respond to its vocation. ... Thus, certain of the immense possibilities of the continent, and trusting in its hopeful future, I invited Europe to open itself to God and so favour prospects for authentic and respectful encounter, united with peoples and civilisations of other continents". Benedict XVI then spoke of the second stage of his apostolic trip, which took him to Barcelona where he consecrated the church of the Sagrada Familia and declared it as a minor basilica. Contemplating the beauty of that building, "which invites us to raise our gaze and our souls to heaven, to God, I recalled other great religious buildings, such as the cathedrals of the Middle Ages which have profoundly marked the history and appearance of the major European cities. "That splendid work, rich in religious symbolism, ... almost like an immense stone sculpture", he added, "draws us to the true shrine, the place of authentic worship, heaven, where Christ entered to appear before God on our behalf. The great architect of this magnificent temple brilliantly represented the mystery of the Church into which the faithful are incorporated by Baptism as living stones in the construction of a spiritual edifice". The church of the Sagrada Familia was conceived by its architect, Antoni Gaudi, "as an immense catechesis on Jesus Christ, as a hymn of praise to the Creator. ... Indeed, the extraordinarily expressive and symbolic capacity of the artistic forms and motifs, as well as the innovative architectural and sculptural techniques, evoke the supreme Source of all beauty", said the Pope. He then explained how Gaudi's own life, "from the moment he accepted the commission to build the church, ... was marked by a profound change" as he felt "the need to prepare himself spiritually in order to succeed in expressing the unfathomable mystery of God in material reality". The Holy Father went on: "In Barcelona I also visited the 'Obra Benefico-Social Nen Deu', ... where handicapped children and young people are cared for with love and professional skill. Their lives are precious in the eyes of God, and they are a constant invitation to us to abandon our own selfishness". Also in Barcelona, "I prayed intensely for families, the vital cells and the hope of society and of the Church. I also recalled people who suffer, especially at this time of severe economic difficulties. My thoughts also went to the young, ... that they may discover the beauty, value and commitment of Marriage in which a man and a woman form a family which generously accepts life and accompanies it from conception until natural end. Everything done to support marriage and the family, to help people in need, everything that serves to enhance man's greatness and his inviolable dignity, also helps to perfect society". The Pope concluded his remarks by rendering thanks to God "for the intense few days I spent in Santiago de Compostela and Barcelona". He expressed his gratitude "to the King and Queen of Spain, to the Prince and Princess of Asturias, to the authorities, ... to the archbishops of those two particular Churches", and to "everyone whose efforts ensured my visit to those two marvellous cities was fruitful. They were unforgettable days which will remain inscribed in my heart". Before this morning's general audience, in St. Peter's Basilica, the Pope had received a group of pilgrims from the Italian town of Carpineto Romano who had come to Rome to thank him for his visit there in September commemorating the bicentenary of the birth of Pope Leo XIII. Also in the basilica, the Pope then greeted a group of pilgrims from the Czech Republic, who had likewise come to Rome to return the visit the Pope had made to their country in September 2009. "I pray to the Lord", he told them, "that He will cause the grace of that journey to bear fruit, and I hope that the Christian people of the Czech Republic many continue to bear courageous witness to the Gospel, with renewed enthusiasm and in all places".AG/ VIS 20101110 (1100) Image source: Ghetty Images
OTHER PONTIFICAL ACTS VATICAN CITY, 10 NOV 2010 (VIS) - The Holy Father appointed: - Bishop Jude Thaddeus Ruwa'ichi O.F.M. Cap. of Dodoma, Tanzania, president of the Tanzania Episcopal Conference, as metropolitan archbishop of Mwanza (area 19,592, population 3,257,000, Catholics 968,000, priests 79, religious 240), Tanzania. The archbishop-elect was born in Mulo-Kilema, Tanzania in 1954, he was ordained a priest in 1981 and consecrated a bishop in 1999. - Fr. Jaime Spengler O.F.M., guardian of the Fraternity of "Bom Jesus da Aldeia" at Campo Largo in the archdiocese of Curitiba, Brazil, as auxiliary of the archdiocese of Porto Alegre (area 13,753, population 3,227,700, Catholics 2,401,782, priests 353, permanent deacons 56, religious 1,750), Brazil. The bishop-elect was born in Blumenau, Brazil in 1960 and ordained a priest in 1990. - Claude Prudhomme, professor of modern history at the University "Louis Lumiere - Lyon 2" in Lyon, France, as a member of the Pontifical Committee for Historical Sciences.
Posted by JesusCaritasEst at 1:25 PM 0 comments




ASIA: IRAQ: 3 DEAD AND 26 WOUNDED IN ATTACKS
AsiaNews REPORT -A series of attacks this morning with mortars and homemade bombs. The prime minister pays a visit to the Syrian Catholic Church attacked by al-Qaeda and calls on Christians not to leave the country. Meanwhile the first survivors arrive in France, for receive special treatment.Three dead and 26 injuries is the provisional death toll from a series of attacks against Christian homes this morning in different districts of Baghdad. Between 6 and 8 this morning, two mortar shells and dozens of homemade bombs exploded in front of the homes of the faithful.Last night in the capital three other Christian houses were hit by bombs, without causing any victims. Despite this, the Prime Minister al Maliki is urging Christians not to abandon the country.The latest attacks come only 10 days after the October 31 attack on the Syrian Catholic Church of Our Lady of Salvation, and after threats from Al Qaeda to eliminate Christians from the Middle East. The attack on the parish killed 44 faithful, two priests and seven security guards. About 90 people were injured. Of these, the first group (37, to be followed by those remaining) arrived in France on Nov. 8 to receive treatment offered by the European nation, the only one to propose such support.Yesterday, Prime Minister al-Maliki visited the church of Our Lady of Salvation and urged his fellow Christians not to leave the country. Praising the "noble" gesture of France, al-Maliki said that "it must not be an incentive to emigrate." He recalled that in his meeting with Benedict XVI, in 2008, had asked the Pope "not to allow the East be emptied of Christians, nor the West of Muslims"."We ask - he said – for an end to the emigration of Christians, that the phenomenon does not return, and we will do everything possible so that the array of flowers of Iraq's communities remain complete and united".Al-Maliki also offered his condolences to the families of the victims: "The equality of Christians and other Iraqis - he said - is a sacred duty."Eric Besson, the French Minister of Immigration has made it clear that Christians survivors of the attack in Baghdad will benefit political asylum. "This message of support – he added - does not mean that France and Europe, are inviting the Christians of the East and Iraq to leave their countries. Rather it is our responsibility and desire to help them live in security in their countries of origin. "On 8 November two other believers were killed in front of their homes in the Iraqi capital.Before the U.S. invasion in 2003, the Christian community in Iraq counted almost a million faithful, that number has now dropped below 500 thousand
http://www.asianews.it/news-en/Three-Christians-killed-and-26-wounded.-Appeal-of-Al-Maliki-19948.html
Posted by JesusCaritasEst at 1:23 PM 0 comments




EUROPE: SCOTLAND: NEW ORDER OF NUNS PROMOTES LIFE
LifeSiteNews.com REPORT– The erosion of British society, with its increasing levels of violent crime, family breakdown and drug and alcohol abuse, is directly related to the passage of the 1967 Abortion Act and the devaluing of human life that came of it, Sister Roseann Reddy, of the Sisters of the Gospel of Life, told LifeSiteNews.com in an interview.“Is it all connected? Yes,” she said. “Is there a connection between this and the fact that we have one of the longest-running abortion laws in history? Yes, I think it is all connected.”Sr. Roseann, the foundress of the pro-life religious community, was a featured speaker at the Viva la Vida conference in Dublin held by Ireland’s leading pro-life activist group Youth Defence November 5-7. She described the situation in Britain as “very dire.”“Because when you lose respect for human life at its early stages, you begin to lose respect for human life at any stage. And it affects everything.”She related the destruction of children, made legal under British law in 1967, to the spiritual, emotional and physical destruction of women, “of family life, of the relationship between men and women, it all has an effect. And we live that every day, we see it every day.”The erosion of civil society in Britain, much commented upon by Prime Minister David Cameron who has repeatedly called Britain “broken,” “doesn’t happen by accident,” Sr. Roseann said. “There are causes behind it, and I’m convinced that the legalization of abortion is one of the biggest causes.”The three-member community of sisters runs one of Britain’s best known crisis pregnancy counseling and social assistance centers in Glasgow, the Cardinal Winning Pro-life Initiative, a project Sr. Roseann began with the approval and help of the late Thomas Winning, Cardinal Archbishop of Glasgow, in January 2000. The sisters are the first new female religious community to be formed in Scotland for over one hundred and fifty years.The purpose of the sisters is to live the challenge laid out by Pope John Paul II’s landmark encyclical, Evangelium Vitae, to “uphold the belief that every person is a unique individual and has infinite dignity conferred on them through their creation in the image and likeness of God.”She said that the foundation of her religious community stemmed “from a need of the times” to address the damage done to women and society by abortion and the contraceptive mentality.“When we didn’t have the education system that we have now, the great teaching orders evolved. When we didn’t have the social services we have now, all the groups like the Daughters of Charity (of St. Vincent de Paul) all came. When we didn’t have the medical system, that’s when the nursing orders came.“So that’s where our order stems from. From a need of the times. For us, the greatest need was to uphold and defend human life from the moment of conception, to attack this ‘culture of death’.”Sister Roseann’s community currently has three members, and she said she is hopeful about future growth. Comparing her community to the New York-based Sisters of Life, which has seen large numbers of women join in recent years, Sister Roseann said that vocations to the religious life do not come in numbers from a chronically morally broken society.“We’re not going to get vocations from contracepting families. If all their married life, Catholic families have been contracepting, there has been this barrier between God and themselves at the very heart of the relationship, at the very heart of their marriage, of the sacramental bringing together.”“Vocation is nine times out of ten from the Church in the home, from people who are nurtured in the faith,” she said. “And if you have never in your married life been generous with God, then you’re not going to want to give your child up, one of your 1.2 children, to religious life.”She added, “It is a real problem because however difficult the issue of abortion is, once you start to talk about not just the contraceptive mentality, but the reality of contraception and what it’s doing to our society, I think that’s a very real problem with vocations.”She laid the responsibility for the lack of knowledge about the faith at the feet of the Catholic Church’s authorities, who have allowed Catholic education to become “woefully inadequate for the last 40 years,” which has caused a “massive melt-down in the teaching of the faith.”“A lot of people simply don’t know that the Church is against contraception, or if they do, they accept it on the grounds of ‘individual conscience’. They forget the whole part about how you have to inform your conscience in light of the Church’s teaching. And not inform your conscience in the light of Oprah.” The Sisters of the Gospel of Life have focused on contraception as well as abortion because, “people are getting damaged.” The youngest pregnant girl the sisters ever dealt with at the Glasgow centre was 12 years old. “It’s just ridiculous that a twelve year-old girl is getting pregnant.”“The problem is not that she’s having a baby; the problem is that a 12 year old is having sex.”Sr. Roseann is hopeful about the future, however. Catholics and other pro-life people around Britain, she said, look to the Cardinal Winning Initiative for the leadership that is lacking from the Church’s hierarchy. “People love being part of the pro-life initiative. We get a lot of support from people.“When people come they’re always amazed at how happy and friendly and joyful it is. And that is telling of itself, that people come and are amazed that a pro-life thing is happy. I think, well, how can it be anything else?”“All you can do is fight back. All you can do is do what you think God is calling you to do. You just do your best, day in and day out. We’re not in charge of anything. God is in charge.”http://www.lifesitenews.com/ldn/2010/nov/10111004.html
Posted by JesusCaritasEst at 1:22 PM 0 comments




AMERICA: USA: CARDINAL GEORGE ASKS OBAMA TO PROTECT IRAQUIS
USCCB REPORT: Cardinal George Urges President Obama to Take Measures to Protect Iraqi Citizens in Wake of AttacksWASHINGTON (November 10, 2010) — Following the October 31 assault on the Syrian Catholic cathedral in Baghdad and subsequent violence, Chicago Cardinal Francis George, OMI, president of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, urged President Obama to “take additional steps now to help Iraq protect its citizens, especially Christians and others who are victims of organized attacks.”“Having invaded Iraq, our nation has a moral obligation not to abandon those Iraqis who cannot defend themselves,” Cardinal George wrote in a November 9 letter. At a minimum, he said the U.S. must work with Iraqis and the international community to: “enable the Iraqi government to function for the common good of all Iraqis; build the capacity of Iraq’s military and police to provide security for all citizens, including minorities; improve the judicial system and rule of law; promote reconciliation and the protection of human rights, especially religious freedom; rebuild Iraq’s shattered economy so that Iraqis can support their families; and assist refugees and internally displaced Iraqis.”Full text of the letter follows:Dear Mr. President:The October 31 attack on the Syrian Catholic cathedral in Baghdad that killed 58 and wounded 75, together with the recent wave of bombings in Iraq’s capital, are grim evidence of the savage violence and lack of security that has plagued the Iraqi people, especially Christians and other minorities, for over seven years. Some reports even indicate that the October 31 attack may have been more extensive and the failures of security more egregious than originally thought. Enclosed you will find a press release by the Most Reverend Yousif Habash, Bishop of the Eparchy of Our Lady of Deliverance of Newark for Syrian Catholics.In the recent Synod of Bishops on the Middle East in Rome, the bishops from Iraq spoke of the terrifying situation facing Christians and other minorities in that country. They recalled murders, kidnappings, bombings, and naked threats that have forced many Christians from their homes and businesses. Ironically, just two weeks before the October 31 attack, Archbishop Athanase Matti Shaba Matoka of the Syrian Catholic Church in Iraq, whose cathedral was the site of the October 31 attack, addressed the Synod: “The invasion of Iraq by America and its allies brought to Iraq in general, and especially to its Christians, destruction and ruin on all levels. … Seven years have passed and Christianity is still bleeding. Where is the world conscience? All the world remains a spectator before what is happening in Iraq, especially with regards to Christians.”Archbishop Matoka’s strong words remind us of the moral responsibility that the United States bears for working effectively with the Iraqi government to stem the violence. Prior to the war, our Conference of Bishops raised grave moral questions regarding the possibility of U.S. military intervention in Iraq and warned of “unpredictable consequences.” The decimation of the Christian community in Iraq and the continuing violence that threatens all Iraqis are among those tragic consequences.Our troops have served with bravery and distinction, and we welcome the end of U.S.-led combat in Iraq; however, the United States has so far failed in helping Iraqis to develop the political will needed to deploy effective strategies to protect the lives of all citizens, especially Christians and other vulnerable minorities. More must be done to help ensure that refugees and displaced persons are able to return to their homes safely. Having invaded Iraq, our nation has a moral obligation not to abandon those Iraqis who cannot defend themselves.The murderous attack on innocent Christians gathered for worship witnesses to the need for the United States to redouble its efforts to assist Iraq as our engagement enters a new phase. At a minimum, our country must strengthen its work with Iraqis and the international community to: enable the Iraqi government to function for the common good of all Iraqis; build the capacity of Iraq’s military and police to provide security for all citizens, including minorities; improve the judicial system and rule of law; promote reconciliation and the protection of human rights, especially religious freedom; rebuild Iraq’s shattered economy so that Iraqis can support their families; and assist refugees and internally displaced Iraqis.To meet its moral obligations to the Iraqi people, it is critically important that the United States take additional steps now to help Iraq protect its citizens, especially Christians and others who are victims of organized attacks. Thank you for your kind consideration of this urgent request.Sincerely yours,Francis Cardinal George, O.M.I.Archbishop of ChicagoPresident http://www.usccb.org/comm/archives/2010/10-203.shtml
Posted by JesusCaritasEst at 1:21 PM 0 comments



AFRICA: ANGOLA: BISHOPS' COMMENTS ON 35TH ANNIVERSARY
Agenzia Fides – Bishops' note on 35th anniversary of independence: “We recognize the progress made, however more needs to be done.”Tomorrow, November 11, Angola will celebrate its 35th anniversary of national independence. "Of these 35 years, 27 have been spent in a climate of war and 8 in a climate of peace. In time of war, many wounds have been opened in the heart of the Angolans, which, fortunately, are healing. We pray to the Lord that this healing is complete, without the risk of any repercussions," say the Bishops of Angola in a pastoral note published on the occasion."We welcome the progress made in these eight years of peace: the lines of communication, in themselves vital to progress, have improved, giving credit to the government and easing the lives of citizens. In particular, links with the capital from the suburbs have seen a major breakthrough," says the note. "With no less joy, we welcome the schools established in the municipal and local centers of the country, as well as health facilities."The bishops continue: "However, we recognize that further progress is needed. Not only schools, but also the basic health services, should be established in our villages so that every patient, pregnant women included, can receive due attention."Among other basic services that the bishops consider appropriate to provide to all Angolans are drinking water, electricity, and modern communications systems.The memo also calls for recognition of the Church's contribution in the educational and social sectors: "Helping the Church rebuild its schools and its health infrastructure is not an extra; it is a way of cooperating in the country's development."The bishops finally expressed there concern at the increase of victims of road accidents and domestic violence, and also called for respect for the environment.http://www.fides.org/aree/news/newsdet.php?idnews=27773&lan=eng
Posted by JesusCaritasEst at 1:20 PM 0 comments




AUSTRALIA: RETIRED ANGLICAN BISHOP JOINS CATHOLIC CHURCH
Cath News report: A retired Australian Anglican bishop is among five local priests who have joined the Catholic Church, reports The Australian.David Silk, a former Bishop of Ballarat, joined four other bishops who expressed their "dismay" and "distress" at the church's liberal direction and that they believed that modern reforms, including women bishops, were "incompatible" with historic Anglicanism.Bishop David Robarts, chairman of Anglican traditionalist group Forward in Faith Australia, said disaffected Australian clergy were preparing to form a new Catholic ordinate as soon as Easter."It's unlikely there will be a huge number (of lay converts) to begin with, but once the process begins, it is open to continuing indefinitely," he said."We just don't know at the moment because people are yet to indicate whether they will come or not."It's probably going to be a slower process here." http://www.cathnews.com/article.aspx?aeid=24144
Posted by JesusCaritasEst at 1:19 PM 0 comments




TODAY'S SAINT: ST. LEO THE GREAT: NOV. 10
St. Leo the GreatPOPEFeast: November 10Information:Feast Day:November 10Born:400 at Tuscany, ItalyDied:11 April 461 at Rome, ItalyPlace and date of birth unknown; died 10 November, 461. Leo's pontificate, next to that of St. Gregory I, is the most significant and important in Christian antiquity. At a time when the Church was experiencing the greatest obstacles to her progress in consequence of the hastening disintegration of the Western Empire, while the Orient was profoundly agitated over dogmatic controversies, this great pope, with far-seeing sagacity and powerful hand, guided the destiny of the Roman and Universal Church. According to the "Liber Pontificalis" (ed. Mommsen, I, 101 sqq., ed. Duchesne, I, 238 sqq.), Leo was a native of Tuscany and his father's name was Quintianus. Our earliest certain historical information about Leo reveals him a deacon of the Roman Church under Pope Celestine I (422-32). Even during this period he was known outside of Rome, and had some relations with Gaul, since Cassianus in 430 or 431 wrote at Leo's suggestion his work "De Incarnatione Domini contra Nestorium" (Migne, P.L., L, 9 sqq.), prefacing it with a letter of dedication to Leo. About this time Cyril of Alexandria appealed to Rome against the pretensions of Bishop Juvenal of Jerusalem. From an assertion of Leo's in a letter of later date (ep. cxvi, ed. Ballerini, I, 1212; II, 1528), it is not very clear whether Cyril wrote to him in the capacity of Roman deacon, or to Pope Celestine. During the pontificate of Sixtus III (422-40), Leo was sent to Gaul by Emperor Valentinian III to settle a dispute and bring about a reconciliation between Aëtius, the chief military commander of the province, and the chief magistrate, Albinus. This commission is a proof of the great confidence placed in the clever and able deacon by the Imperial Court. Sixtus III died on 19 August, 440, while Leo was in Gaul, and the latter was chosen his successor. Returning to Rome, Leo was consecrated on 29 September of the same year, and governed the Roman Church for the next twenty-one years.Leo's chief aim was to sustain the unity of the Church. Not long after his elevation to the Chair of Peter, he saw himself compelled to combat energetically the heresies which seriously threatened church unity even in the West. Leo had ascertained through Bishop Septimus of Altinum, that in Aquileia priests, deacons, and clerics, who had been adherents of Pelagius, were admitted to communion without an explicit abjuration of their heresy. The pope sharply censured this procedure, and directed that a provincial synod should be assembled in Aquileia, at which such persons were to be required to abjure Pelagianism publicly and to subscribe to an unequivocal confession of Faith (epp. i and ii). This zealous pastor waged war even more strenuously against Manichæism, inasmuch as its adherents, who had been driven from Africa by the Vandals, had settled in Rome, and had succeeded in establishing a secret Manichæan community there. The pope ordered the faithful to point out these heretics to the priests, and in 443, together with the senators and presbyters, conducted in person an investigation, in the course of which the leaders of the community were examined. In several sermons he emphatically warned the Christians of Rome to be on their guard against this reprehensible heresy, and repeatedly charged them to give information about its followers, their dwellings, acquaintances, and rendezvous (Sermo ix, 4, xvi, 4; xxiv, 4; xxxiv, 4 sq.; xlii, 4 sq.; lxxvi, 6). A number of Manichæans in Rome were converted and admitted to confession; others, who remained obdurate, were in obedience to imperial decrees banished from Rome by the civil magistrates. On 30 January, 444, the pope sent a letter to all the bishops of Italy, to which he appended the documents containing his proceedings against the Manichæans in Rome, and warned them to be on their guard and to take action against the followers of the sect (ep. vii). On 19 June, 445, Emperor Valentinian III issued, doubtless at the pope's instigation, a stern edict in which he established seven punishments for the Manichæans ("Epist. Leonis", ed. Ballerini, I, 626; ep. viii inter Leon. ep). Prosper of Aquitaine states in his "Chronicle" (ad an. 447; "Mon. Germ. hist. Auct. antiquissimi", IX, I, 341 sqq.) that, in consequence of Leo's energetic measures, the Manichæans were also driven out of the provinces, and even Oriental bishops emulated the pope's example in regard to this sect. In Spain the heresy of Priscillianism still survived, and for some time had been attracting fresh adherents. Bishop Turibius of Astorga became cognizant of this, and by extensive journeys collected minute information about the condition of the churches and the spread of Priscillianism. He compiled the errors of the heresy, wrote a refutation of the same, and sent these documents to several African bishops. He also sent a copy to the pope, whereupon the latter sent a lengthy letter to Turibius (ep. xv) in refutation of the errors of the Priscillianists. Leo at the same time ordered that a council of bishops belonging to the neighbouring provinces should be convened to institute a rigid enquiry, with the object of determining whether any of the bishops had become tainted with the poison of this heresy. Should any such be discovered, they were to be excommunicated without hesitation. The pope also addressed a similar letter to the bishops of the Spanish provinces, notifying them that a universal synod of all the chief pastors was to be summoned; if this should be found to be impossible, the bishops of Galicia at least should be assembled. These two synods were in fact held in Spain to deal with the points at issue (Hefele, "Konziliengesch." II, 2nd ed., pp. 306 sqq.).The greatly disorganized ecclesiastical condition of certain countries, resulting from national migrations, demanded closer bonds between their episcopate and Rome for the better promotion of ecclesiastical life. Leo, with this object in view, determined to make use of the papal vicariate of the bishops of Arles for the province of Gaul for the creation of a centre for the Gallican episcopate in immediate union with Rome. In the beginning his efforts were greatly hampered by his conflict with St. Hilary, then Bishop of Arles. Even earlier, conflicts had arisen relative to the vicariate of the bishops of Arles and its privileges. Hilary made excessive use of his authority over other ecclesiastical provinces, and claimed that all bishops should be consecrated by him, instead of by their own metropolitan. When, for example, the complaint was raised that Bishop Celidonius of Besançon had been consecrated in violation of the canons—the grounds alleged being that he had, as a layman, married a widow, and, as a public officer, had given his consent to a death sentence—Hilary deposed him, and consecrated Importunus as his successor. Celidonius thereupon appealed to the pope and set out in person for Rome. About the same time Hilary, as if the see concerned had been vacant, consecrated another bishop to take the place of a certain Bishop Projectus, who was ill. Projectus recovered, however, and he too laid a complaint at Rome about the action of the Bishop of Arles. Hilary then went himself to Rome to justify his proceedings. The pope assembled a Roman synod (about 445) and, when the complaints brought against Celidonius could not be verified, reinstated the latter in his see. Projectus also received his bishopric again. Hilary returned to Arles before the synod was over; the pope deprived him of jurisdiction over the other Gallic provinces and of metropolitan rights over the province of Vienne, only allowing him to retain his Diocese of Arles.These decisions were disclosed by Leo in a letter to the bishops of the Province of Vienne (ep. x). At the same time he sent them an edict of Valentinian III of 8 July, 445, in which the pope's measures in regard to St. Hilary were supported, and the primacy of the Bishop of Rome over the whole Church solemnly recognized "Epist. Leonis," ed. Ballerini, I, 642). On his return to his bishopric Hilary sought a reconciliation with the pope. After this there arose no further difficulties between these two saintly men and, after his death in 449, Hilary was declared by Leo as "beatæ memoriæ". To Bishop Ravennius, St. Hilary's successor in the see of Arles, and the bishops of that province, Leo addressed most cordial letters in 449 on the election of the new metropolitan (epp. xl, xli). When Ravennius consecrated a little later a new bishop to take the place of the deceased Bishop of Vaison, the Archbishop of Vienne, who was then in Rome, took exception to this action. The bishops of the province of Arles then wrote a joint letter to the pope, in which they begged him to restore to Ravennius the rights of which his predecessor Hilary had been deprived (ep. lxv inter ep. Leonis). In his reply dated 5 May, 450 (ep. lxvi), Leo acceded to their request. The Archbishop of Vienne was to retain only the suffragan Bishoprics of Valence, Tarentaise, Geneva, and Grenoble; all the other sees in the Province of Vienne were made subject to the Archbishop of Arles, who also became again the mediator between the Holy See and the whole Gallic episcopate. Leo transmitted to Ravennius (ep. lxvii), for communication to the other Gallican bishops, his celebrated letter to Flavian of Constantinople on the Incarnation. Ravennius thereupon convened a synod, at which forty-four chief pastors assembled. In their synodal letter of 451, they affirm that they accept the pope's letter as a symbol of faith (ep. xxix inter ep. Leonis). In his answer Leo speaks further of the condemnation of Nestorius (ep. cii). The Vicariate of Arles for a long time retained the position Leo had accorded it. Another papal vicariate was that of the bishops of Thessalonica, whose jurisdiction extended over Illyria. The special duty of this vicariate was to protect the rights of the Holy See over the district of Eastern Illyria, which belonged to the Eastern Empire. Leo bestowed the vicariate upon Bishop Anastasius of Thessalonica, just as Pope Siricius had formerly entrusted it to Bishop Anysius. The vicar was to consecrate the metropolitans, to assemble in a synod all bishops of the Province of Eastern Illyria, to oversee their administration of their office; but the most important matters were to be submitted to Rome (epp. v, vi, xiii). But Anastasius of Thessalonica used his authority in an arbitrary and despotic manner, so much so that he was severely reproved by Leo, who sent him fuller directions for the exercise of his office (ep. xiv).In Leo's conception of his duties as supreme pastor, the maintenance of strict ecclesiastical discipline occupied a prominent place. This was particularly important at a time when the continual ravages of the barbarians were introducing disorder into all conditions of life, and the rules of morality were being seriously violated. Leo used his utmost energy in maintining this discipline, insisted on the exact observance of the ecclesiastical precepts, and did not hesitate to rebuke when necessary. Letters (ep. xvii) relative to these and other matters were sent to the different bishops of the Western Empire—e.g., to the bishops of the Italian provinces (epp. iv, xix, clxvi, clxviii), and to those of Sicily, who had tolerated deviations from the Roman Liturgy in the administration of Baptism (ep. xvi), and concerning other matters (ep. xvii). A very important disciplinary decree was sent to bishop Rusticus of Narbonne (ep. clxvii). Owing to the dominion of the Vandals in Latin North Africa, the position of the Church there had become extremely gloomy. Leo sent the Roman priest Potentius thither to inform himself about the exact condition, and to forward a report to Rome. On receiving this Leo sent a letter of detailed instructions to the episcopate of the province about the adjustment of numerous ecclesiastical and disciplinary questions (ep. xii). Leo also sent a letter to Dioscurus of Alexandria on 21 July, 445, urging him to the strict observance of the canons and discipline of the Roman Church (ep. ix). The primacy of the Roman Church was thus manifested under this pope in the most various and distinct ways. But it was especially in his interposition in the confusion of the Christological quarrels, which then so profoundly agitated Eastern Christendom, that Leo most brilliantly revealed himself the wise, learned, and energetic shepherd of the Church (see MONOPHYSITISM). From his first letter on this subject, written to Eutyches on 1 June, 448 (ep. xx), to his last letter written to the new orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria, Timotheus Salophaciolus, on 18 August, 460 (ep. clxxi), we cannot but admire the clear, positive, and systematic manner in which Leo, fortified by the primacy of the Holy See, took part in this difficult entanglement.Eutyches appealed to the pope after he had been excommunicated by Flavian, Patriarch of Constantinople, on account of his Monophysite views. The pope, after investigating the disputed question, sent his sublime dogmatic letter to Flavian (ep. xxviii), concisely setting forth and confirming the doctrine of the Incarnation, and the union of the Divine and human natures in the one Person of Christ . In 449 the council, which was designated by Leo as the "Robber Synod", was held. Flavian and other powerful prelates of the East appealed to the pope. The latter sent urgent letters to Constantinople, particularly to Emperor Theodosius II and Empress Pulcheria, urging them to convene a general council in order to restore peace to the Church. To the same end he used his influence with the Western emperor, Valentinian III, and his mother Galla Placidia, especially during their visit to Rome in 450. This general council was held in Chalcedon in 451 under Marcian, the successor of Theodosius. It solemnly accepted Leo's dogmatical epistle to Flavian as an expression of the Catholic Faith concerning the Person of Christ. The pope confirmed the decrees of the Council after eliminating the canon, which elevated the Patriarchate of Constantinople, while diminishing the rights of the ancient Oriental patriarchs. On 21 March, 453, Leo issued a circular letter confirming his dogmatic definition (ep. cxiv). Through the mediation of Bishop Julian of Cos, who was at that time the papal ambassador in Constantinople, the pope tried to protect further ecclesiastical interest. in the Orient. He persuaded the new Emperor of Constantinople, Leo I, to remove the heretical and irregular patriarch, Timotheus Ailurus, from the See of Alexandria. A new and orthodox patriarch, Timotheus Salophaciolus, was chosen to fill his place, and received the congratulations of the pope in the last letter which Leo ever sent to the Orient.In his far-reaching pastoral care of the Universal Church, in the West and in the East, the pope never neglected the domestic interests of the Church at Rome. When Northern Italy had been devastated by Attila, Leo by a personal encounter with the King of the Huns prevented him from marching upon Rome. At the emperor's wish, Leo, accompanied by the Consul Avienus and the Prefect Trigetius, went in 452 to Upper Italy, and met Attila at Mincio in the vicinity of Mantua, obtaining from him the promise that he would withdraw from Italy and negotiate peace with the emperor. The pope also succeeded in obtaining another great favour for the inhabitants of Rome. When in 455 the city was captured by the Vandals under Genseric, although for a fortnight the town had been plundered, Leo's intercession obtained a promise that the city should not be injured and that the lives of the inhabitants should be spared. These incidents show the highmoral authority enjoyed by the pope, manifested even in temporal affairs. Leo was always on terms of intimacy with the Western Imperial Court. In 450 Emperor Valentinian III visited Rome, accompanied by his wife Eudoxia and his mother Galla Placidia. On the feast of Cathedra Petri (22 February), the Imperial family with their brilliant retinue took part in the solemn services at St. Peter's, upon which occasion the pope delivered an impressive sermon. Leo was also active in building and restoring churches. He built a basilica over the grave of Pope Cornelius in the Via Appia. The roof of St. Paul's without the Walls having been destroyed by lightning, he had it replaced, and undertook other improvements in the basilica. He persuaded Empress Galla Placidia, as seen from the inscription, to have executed the great mosaic of the Arch of Triumph, which has survived to our day. Leo also restored St. Peter's on the Vatican. During his pontificate a pious Roman lady, named Demetria, erected on her property on the Via Appia a basilica in honour of St. Stephen, the ruins of which have been excavated.Leo was no less active in the spiritual elevation of the Roman congregations, and his sermons, of which ninety-six genuine examples have been preserved, are remarkable for their profundity, clearness of diction, and elevated style. The first five of these, which were delivered on the anniversaries of his consecration, manifest his lofty conception of the dignity of his office, as well as his thorough conviction of the primacy of the Bishop of Rome, shown forth in so outspoken and decisive a manner by his whole activity as supreme pastor. Of his letters, which are of great importance for church history, 143 have come down to us: we also possess thirty which were sent to him. The so-called "Sacramentarium Leonianum" is a collection of orations and prefaces of the Mass, prepared in the second half of the sixth century. Leo died on 10 November, 461, and was buried in the vestibule of St. Peter's on the Vatican. In 688 Pope Sergius had his remains transferred to the basilica itself, and a special altar erected over them. They rest today in St. Peter's, beneath the altar specially dedicated to St. Leo. In 1754 Benedict XIV exalted him to the dignity of Doctor of the Church (doctor ecclesiæ). In the Latin Church the feast day of the great pope is held on 11 April, and in the Eastern Church on 18 February.SOURCE http://www.ewtn.com/saintsHoly/saints/L/stleothegreat.asp
Posted by JesusCaritasEst at 12:51 PM 0 comments




TODAY'S GOSPEL: NOV. 10: Luke 17: 11 - 19
Luke 17: 11 - 1911On the way to Jerusalem he was passing along between Sama'ria and Galilee.12And as he entered a village, he was met by ten lepers, who stood at a distance13and lifted up their voices and said, "Jesus, Master, have mercy on us."14When he saw them he said to them, "Go and show yourselves to the priests." And as they went they were cleansed.15Then one of them, when he saw that he was healed, turned back, praising God with a loud voice;16and he fell on his face at Jesus' feet, giving him thanks. Now he was a Samaritan.17Then said Jesus, "Were not ten cleansed? Where are the nine?18Was no one found to return and give praise to God except this foreigner?"19And he said to him, "Rise and go your way; your faith has made you well."
Posted by JesusCaritasEst at 12:45 PM 0 comments


Post a Comment